2006 Diamond Research Scholars
Since December, when they completed their projects, the 2006 Diamond Research Scholars have kept busy - completing courses and exams, studying abroad, and in some cases applying to post-graduate programs. They have also been presenting or submitting their work to local, regional and national conferences, including TURF-CreWS 2007, the American Chemical Society, and the Wester Economics Conference. Other opportunities to present or share their work will undoubtedly occur.
2006 Diamond Scholars
Mechanical Properties of Gelatin Gels and Polyurethane Elastomers
Josiah Q. Oppong Bio, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Kurosh Darvish, Mechanical Engineering
The objective of this research is to reestablish the mechanical properties of gelatin, clear polyurethane, and clear silicone as well as to find if their complex structures allow for alterations that make an impact on their mechanical properties. The way in which the subcomponents of the above materials unite determines the materials’ quality. By so doing, we derive the mechanical properties of the gelatin, polyurethane, and silicone products. Depending on the ratio of the mixture, the components used in the mixture, and the curing or hardening process after mixing, the result is an array of gelatin, polyurethane, and silicone products that vary in their mechanical properties. The overarching goal of this research is to model Traumatic Aortic Rupture, TAR, and Traumatic Brain Injury, TBI, by utilizing the information attained on gelatin, clear silicone, and clear polyurethane. The gelatin, clear silicone, and clear polyurethane are to be used as surrogates for human tissue. This is the main reason why the properties of gelatin, clear silicone, and clear polyurethane have to be liable to change. This will then permit the researching team to create a variety of surrogates. These surrogates will then be used in experiments to determine how different injuries, to either the aorta or brain, occur within the body as well as the fractures severity in different scenarios.
Women In War Zones: Sexual Violence in the DR Congo
Scott T. Blanding, Senior
Film & Media Arts / Business
Mentor: Sameena Usmani, Media Arts Department
The Democratic Republic of Congo sits in the middle of what has been called "Africa's World War". This has been the deadliest war on the planet since WWII; and the worst ever recorded in Africa. Following the Rwandan Genocide in 1944, the Tutsi-led RPF drove the Hutu army and the Interahamwe, a genocidal militia, west into the Congo. The Conflict has lead to the militarization of the country. More than 20 rebel militias and government forces have been committing serious violations of international humanitarian law. With many troops in the area, violence against women has skyrocketed. Tens of thousands of women and girls have been raped since fighting broke out in 1998. Sadly, rape is used as a deliberate weapon of war, intended to terrorize and humiliate the opposing side. Along with the physical mutilation and psychological trauma of rape, many women are stigmatized by their communities and rejected by their families. In the eastern city of Bukavu, Panzi Hospital is the last hope for many victims of sexual violence. For two months this past summer I lived and worked with victims of sexual violence receiving treatment at Panzi Hospital. I lived among women who have been through this horrible tragedy, learned there stories, and documented the troubles they face now.
“The Jews” and “the Pharisees” in Early Quaker Polemic
Clay Javier Boggs, Senior
Mentor: Dr. David Watt, History
The field of Quaker historiography has, by and large, remained bound by a denominational tradition of filio-pietism. Although non-Quaker scholars have begun to challenge this tendency, the emergence of a critical denominational history has been lacking, depriving contemporary Friends of an important avenue for reflection and critical thought. Writing as a committed Quaker, I attempt in this essay to begin such a history by interrogating the early Quaker practice of comparing Puritans to Jews. Quakers interpreted New Testament portrayals of Jews as evidence of an essential opposition between Jews and Christ. As a result of their literal reading of Scripture, early Quakers generally viewed first-century Jews as irreconcilably “other.” The trope of “the Pharisees” came to stand for corrupt and false religion, while the trope of “the Jews” came to stand for bibliolatry—excessive reliance on Scripture. The echoes of this practice can be detected in quotidian practices of contemporary Friends, such as “Lord of the Dance,” a twentieth-century song that is included in Quaker hymnals. The purpose of this essay is to offer Quakers a view of our own history that opens up critical space for discussion of contemporary Quaker practice. At the same time, I hope to offer non-Quakers a new vision for liberating denominational historiographies from the narrow visions of hagiography
Influence of Harsh Environmental Conditions on CFRP – Aluminum Single Lap Joints
Luis C. Breziner, Senior
Mentor: Dr. Parsaoran Hutapea, Mechanical Engineering
An investigation about the influence of harsh environmental conditions on Aluminum – Carbon Fiber ReinforcedPlastic (CFRP) single lap single-bolted joints was conducted, using finite element analysis and experimental studies. The Fundamental failure mechanisms of the joints under extreme hot (60°C), hot and humid (60°C, 95%RH), and freezing cold (-51°C) environments are presented. It was found that hot and humid conditions reduce the strength of the joint in as much as 9%. In contrast, hot and dry environments increase the strength in excess of 97%. From the results ofthese tests, it was unclear whether freezing conditions either decrease or increase the fracture strength of the hybrid joints.
Analyzation of Eicosanoids in Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk: Developing a method to recognize eicosanoids extracted from specimens
Sony Chau, Sophomore
Mentors: Dr. Susan Jansen-Varnum and Tony Blewett, Chemistry
According to the American Heart Association, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of death in the United States of America today. To better understand heart disease and predict its development, this project will attempt to study the markers that the human body presents prior to the development of heart diseases. Individuals, who are genetically hypertensive have genes that increase their probability of having high blood pressure, which will then put them at a higher risk of developing CVD. Hypertension causes the cardiac muscle of the individual to become damage, as it has to constantly work harder than normal to pump blood throughout the entire body. Due to hypertension, the individual is at a higher risk of having heart attacks, strokes, and other CVD. Hence, the body will send chemical signals to initiate the process of inflammation to repair the heart. The chemicals that will be explored in this experiment that participate in the process of inflammation are eicosanoids. In this experiment, a method to recognize eicosanoids that will be extracted from tissues and organs of specimens will be developed. The method will incorporate data of known eicosanoids that are present in certain tissues and organs of the body, and the use of a high performance liquid chromatography and a mass spectroscopy machine. The procedure developed will produce a reference that results in the identity of each eicosanoids, and the specific time that the eicosanoids will separate from a mixture. With the reference, it will then be possible to identify and compare levels of eicosanoids extracted from the tissues and organs of healthy and hypertensive specimen.
At a Safe Distance: Paintings, Drawings and Sculptures of a Nuclear Culture
Michael Cole, Senior
Mentor: Margo Margolis, Painting & Sculpture
High Top (30 inches x 60 inches)
Through the process of painting, I have been exploring the "nuclear question". Because the history of nuclear arms has not yet come to resolve, I have had to look at it from a point of view that includes the past, present and predictions. Starting my research with the advent of nuclear technology, I have coursed a project that has brought me from 'Trinity' to Iran and from U.S. foreign policy of the last 70 years to my childhood in a post-Cold War culture. There is a wealth of information on this such a broad topic, but, as an artist, facts and historical knowledge only reach so far into understanding. The translation of this history into the mediums of paintings, drawings and sculptures has formed a catalyst for thought and progress during this project. I have come from the beginning stages where I was solely focused on the naming process of nuclear tests to my most recent work in which I have been intent on undermining our culture's notion of security by weaving foreboding presences-such as the iconic image of a mushroom cloud-into the fabric of what we consider safe (i.e.-childhood memories, consumer products, in my personal case...wood). Much like the very history I've been researching, my work is ever changing. This is not a project that was started with a definitive end in sight, the goal to answer a specific question by a certain deadline. This is a project in which new question are constantly arising, questions that I do not always have the answers to. For an artist, that is what a good project creates: questions, not answers.
Porch (50 inches x 35 inches)
Re-situating the cadastre within theories of development: the case of Kumasi, Ghana
Justin N. Collins, Senior
Geography and Urban Studies
Mentor: Dr. Ben Kohl, Geography and Urban Studies
Ghana’s Land Administration Project (LAP) uses the “abstract space” of the cadastre (property map), to restructure land tenure into a system amenable to Western investment. While the LAP may provide “clear and distinct” property rights for market-based land delivery, it does not provide adequate support for the social networks that have historically created and maintained the distribution of property. This shift in land tenure is a cultural project which must contend with social, political, economic, technological, physical, and legal constraints. An essential mechanism of this reform is the cadastre, which will, once stabilized, anchor future legal and economic transactions. As LAP reforms focus on such institutional shifts, they necessarily ignore pressing land distributional issues. Rather than building the program on local population needs, Ghana’s land policy seeks to secure and simplify the ownership and value of real estate.
Preserving the Past: An Irish-American Familial History–Immigration, Resemblance and Home
Marisa Coyne, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Laura Levitt, Jewish Studies
“Preserving the Past” is a written, photographic, (and filmic) exploration of biographical-familial reconstruction narrative. Drawing on the documentary work of other family members, “Preserving” considers the role of the third-generation storyteller in spaces already well-storied. It is cross-generational negotiation. It is a conversation between the public and private self-representations of the Irish-American immigrant family. “Preserving” addresses such themes as home, silence, and motion, in an attempt to demonstrate the “messiness,” complexity, and necessity of multi-perspective, relational reflection. With the guidance of Dr. Laura Levitt, whose work includes such related reconstruction projects as “Changing Focus: Family Photography and American Jewish Identity,” “Preservation” considers the development of a “new” voice in the midst of alternate and “conflicting historical narratives.” In the tradition of Annette Kuhn, author of Family Secrets: Acts of Memory and Imagination, Thomas Lynch, author of Booking Passage: We Irish and Americans and Michelle Citron, the work analyzes the communicative quality of saved family photographs (contextualized via verbal exchange) and impressions left by previously viewed filmed interviews.
The Impact of Ethics and Spirituality in the Workplace
Shawn Emrich, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Robert Giacalone, HR Management
Previous studies in the field of spirituality in the workplace have demonstrated spirituality’s ability to influence different dimensions of work life, such as ethics and employee behavior. Also, Spirituality has been shown to have a strong influence on the workforce both on an organizational and personal level, which allows for multiple dimensions of analysis. By further differentiating spirituality from religiosity, even more research can be done to prove just how much of an impact the concept and inclusion of spirituality has in the workplace. The purpose of my research is to determine the positive and negative implications of allowing spirituality in the workplace. The ultimate aim of this research is to aid in the decision of whether or not the inclusion of spirituality benefits an organization, through various means such as increasing efficiency, profit, motivation and other demonstrable results.
A Movement within a Movement: Indigenous Women in Chiapas
Sara D. Getz, Senior
Mentor: Dr. Patricia Melzer, Women’s Studies
My research project examines the emergence of a distinct women’s movement in the Chiapas, Mexico, facilitated by the strong presence of the Zapatistas in the area. In my research, I focus on the evolution of women’s participation in community-based activities, the home, and in the Zapatista Army. My research is divided into two parts. The first examines the existing literature on Zapatista women in Chiapas and situates the emergence of a women’s movement within the historic context of the Zapatista uprising. I conclude that too often indigenous women are not situated as historical actors with agency. Through the 1994 uprising, the Women’s Revolutionary Law, and socio-political organizations such as worker-controlled textile cooperatives, women are both challenging gender discrimination within their communities and also indigenous oppression from the Mexican government. The second part of my project is field research conducted during a three-month stay in Mexico this fall. Through this research, I confirm my previous findings and build upon my research by concluding that the Zapatista movement has created the space in which non-Zapatista, indigenous women are able to exercise more agency within their lives. This is seen prominently in organizing around land rights and violence against women. Lastly, I deal with the academic challenge of studying an indigenous social movement from a perspective in which the information is presented in the voice of the people in a culturally appropriate way, instead of an analysis rooted in Western standards and discourse.
Charitable Contributions, Volunteer Time, and Marriage
Brooke Huttner, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Michael Leeds, Economics
This paper brings together two strands that have been closely examined an individual’s donation of time and money are complements or substitutes. Some, such as Duncan (1999), find that the two are substitutes, while others, such as Bryant et al. (2003) find that they are complements. The second strand of literature concerns the interaction of husbands and wives in charitable activity. Andreoni, Brown, and Rischall (2002) build a model of charitable giving by married couples, but they do not consider how volunteer time enters the family decision making process. Garcia and Marcuello (2001) look at marriage, donations, and volunteer time, but they consider only the decision to volunteer and not the actual number of hours donated. In this paper, we build a model of donations and voluntarism by husbands and wives. We then use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to test whether husbands and wives view the time they spend volunteering as complements or substitutes and whether the volunteer time of each spouse is a complement or substitute for the family’s donations to charity. We perform these tests for both overall donations of time and money and for specific donations to religious and to youth-oriented charities.
Micronparticle Transport and Deposition in Human Upper Airways
Jinho Kim, Senior
Mentor: Dr. Jim Chen, Mechanical Engineering
According to the American Lung Association, about 342,000 Americans die of lung disease every year which is about one in seven deaths. Even though death rates for heart disease and cancer have dropped, the lung disease death rate has increased. Most therapies to treat lung disease use drugs in the form of aerosol to deliver the major portion of the drug directly to the lung. Such treatments rely on the transport and deposition of the drug particles in the respiratory system. Thus, scientists need to have a better understanding of air flows in the lungs to improve the efficiency of the transport and deposition of inhaled drug particles in the airways. The purpose of this study is to investigate the airflows in human respiratory airways. The influence of particle size on transport and deposition patterns in the 2D planar lung model of the human airways is the primary concerns of this research. The developed lung model for this research extends from trachea to the segmental bronchi and it is based on Weibel’s model (1963). The velocity field of air is studied and particle transport and deposition is compared for particles in the diameter range 1 μm to 100 μm at inspiratory flow rate of 16.7 L/min, which represents normal breathing. The investigation is carried out by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) via a software Fluent 6.2.1. Two dimensional of steady laminar flow is simulated and forces included are drag and gravity. Deposition mainly occurs by inertial impaction. Deposition generally increases with increases in particle size and flow rate. Most of the larger micron sized particles are captured at the first bifurcation, while smaller micron sized particles flow with the fluid in to the lung model.
Figure 1. Velocity contour of air flow Figure 2. Trajectory of particles Figure 3. Trajectory of particles
(Air flow rate = 16.7 L/min) (Diameter=100μm) (Diameter = 1μm)
The Tristan Chord: Its Function in Music History
Andrew Leland, Senior
Mentor: Dr. Steven Kreinberg, Music History
Richard Wagner’s monumental music drama, Tristan und Isolde, has inspired and challenged musicians, scholars, and countless music lovers throughout the world since its premiere in 1865. Groundbreaking in its conception, the work itself almost defies analysis through traditional means. It has attracted scholarly interest in such diverse fields as aesthetics, musicology, music theory, philosophy, to name but a few of the fields that have demonstrated interest in its analysis and interpretation. Opening with one of the most discussed collection of pitches, F, G#, B, and D#, the “Tristan chord” has been interpreted by numerous theorists, resulting in heated discussions that span traditional Roman numeral analyses to twentieth-century pitch-class sets. Viewed from yet another perspective, music historians have focused on the musico-dramatic representations of the Tristan chord, highlighting Wagner’s conception of the music drama and the gesamtkunstwerk (total work of art). Still others have examined Tristan und Isolde and the “Tristan chord” through Wagner’s interest in the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, as well as through Wagner’s relationship with Mathilde Wesendonck at the time. This research project is an examination of several divergent scholarly views of the “Tristan chord” in English and its use within the music drama, as well as its influence on later works by other composers, to demonstrate the larger significance of Wagner’s contribution to music history through Tristan und Isolde.
Skepticism, Necessita, and the Morality of Machiavelli
Justin Murphy, Junior
Political Science and Economics
Mentor: Dr. Aryeh Botwinick, Political Science
For Machiavelli, the question of morality in political theory demands consistent skepticism. I trace here the origin and character of this skepticism and attempt to narrate Machiavelli’s strategies for proceeding. The popular image of Machiavelli as immoral or amoral is rejected in favor of a Machiavelli only extremely sensitive to the ways that epistemological dilemmas affect conceptions of morality. Given his moral skepticism, Machiavelli finds himself in need of ground on which he can justifiably establish the normative claims of his work. The concept of necessita provides this ground. In a morally skeptical political theory, necessita allows Machiavelli to prevent a collapse into subjectivism or relativism by delineating a baseline point of moral reference that mitigates if not circumvents problems of skepticism.
Non-rigid Image Registration: Verification of the TPS-RPM Algorithm
Eghonghon Ojeifo, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Chang-Hee Won, Electrical Engineering
The objective of this project is to investigate a novel method for non-rigid image registration. The project will involve mapping and comparing various images of an object to the actual object. This project would have a great beneficial effect in fields such as Image Guided Surgery where a portion of the body, organ or solid needs to be isolated from the rest. A Computed Tomography (CT) scanner would be used to get 3D images of the object in question. A Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) with a laser range scanner would be used to get and display the coordinates and positions of the actual object. The project would focus on investigating the Thin Plate Spline Robust Point Matching (TPS-RPM) algorithm that allows simultaneous mapping of the non-ridge image of the object to the actual object.
Trying to map both images (mapping green image unto red image).
The Influence of English on Spanish
Joshua M. Pongan, Senior
Mentor: Dr. Norma Corrales-Martin, Spanish and Portuguese
Every day, languages change and evolve as they are bombarded by influences both internally and externally. One of the key external factors that stimulates interesting linguistic changes islanguages in contact. In areas with bilingual or multilingual populations, a command of two languages lends itself to changes in one or both languages as result of the other. In North America, two of the languages most commonly in contact are Spanish and English. They coexist in multiple ways, on different areas, and at varying degrees. In this study, the influence of English on the Spanish language will be investigated through songs of the genre reggaeton. A focus will be placed on this genre for various reasons. It is a relatively new genre of music that represents what is currently popular; therefore, it is a present day account of the language currently used by the writers and singers. Furthermore, it is an international product that might capture an existing influence of English on the Spanish language. Through the reggaeton of various countries, a comparison will be made to investigate how English is influencing Spanish. The primary area of investigation will be at the lexical level, where evidence of English will be most visible through the incorporation of English words into the Spanish vocabulary. After a general description of reggaeton is solidified, artists from three different geographic areas will be selected and their work will be compared
Nonlinear Optical Studies of Mesoscopic Colloidal Particle Surface Charge
Allison K. Pymer, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Eric Borguet, Chemistry
Surface charge is a key property that determines the interactions of particles in colloidal systems that are commonly found in the environment and in manufactured goods (e.g. paint). Past studies have used a number of techniques, such as potentiomeric titration, zeta potential, and photoelectron spectroscopy, to determine the surface charge of particles. However, these are all indirect measurements. More recently, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a direct, noninvasive probe of surface potential, which may be related to surface charge using appropriate models, for example, the Gouy-Chapman model. However, all of the techniques used to measure surface charge make assumptions, which are not always the same, as to what governs the development of charge on a surface. In this study, surface charge measurements of the silica-aqueous interface were made using a combination of potentiomeric titrations and in situ SHG measurements. Silicon dioxide, or silica, is a mineral oxide present in nature that also has many applications in manufacturing. Comparison of surface charge measurements made by titration and SHG resulted in the observation that each technique quantifies different surface charge densities under the same conditions. Based on this data, it may be inferred that a simple deprotonation reaction cannot account for the observed surface charge density of silica, and therefore, other models of surface charge need to be used to explain the data. A more unified description of charge development on surfaces, described by mathematical models, will assist in identifying other equilibria involving aqueous components such as anions, cations, and molecular species. More advanced models will also allow scientists to predict the interaction of charged particles with their environment under different pHs and ionic strengths such as the conditions present in watersheds and industrial components.
Looking Inside the “Black Box” of the Juvenile Drug Court: Understanding the Role and the Influence of the Judge
Benta K. Samuelson, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Matthew Hiller, Criminal Justice
In the last several decades, the juvenile justice system has seen a dramatic increase in the number of drug related cases as well as offenders who have substance abuse problems. In an effort to rehabilitate juvenile offenders who use illicit drugs, the Juvenile Drug Court movement has spread across the nation. This court-based program model seems to be effective, with some empirical support from quasi-experimental and experimental outcome evaluations, but little is known about the components and processes that influence positive client change in this model. The current study, therefore, aims to shed light on this “black box” of the Juvenile Drug Court process by examining the relationship and interactions between the juvenile drug court judge and the participants. There have been several studies in adult drug courts that show this interaction is important, but there are no studies on this in the juvenile drug court literature. Data were collected through systematic participant observation during which researchers attended 19 pre-hearing conferences and 19 drug court status hearings. Information coded included both descriptive and dynamic relational information from each of these observations. Overall, a total of 272 interactions between the judge and individual clients were coded. These interactions were relatively short (average was 4 minutes) and focused principally on the clients’ compliance or lack of compliance with the program.
Sanctions were given during 35% of the interactions between the judge and the clients. Rewards were given during 19% of the interactions. Findings also showed a relatively high level of correspondence between the individual-level compliance and non-compliance information discussed during the pre-conference hearings and the actual interactions between the judge and youth during the treatment court. Overall, lack of compliance in treatment and school activities resulted in a sanction being issued by the judge during the court hearing. Compliance was often rewarded through verbal acknowledgements from the judge. Overall, the exchanges between the judge and client were affectively neutral; however, the judge was characterized as being more “tense” and “scolding” by observers during exchanges during which a client’s non-compliance with treatment was discussed were. Additional research is needed to understand whether the interactions between the judge and the clients exert a measurable influence on the clients’ attitudes and behavior, both in the short-term and the long-term.
Talia B. Shabtay, Senior
Mentor: Margo Margolis, Painting & Sculpture
In the Spring of 2006 I was named Temple University Diamond Scholar, which provided a research stipend to support a project entitled Interpreting Spaces. The focus of this project was to study the dynamism of contemporary life as a means of informing paintings that are overloaded with energy and movement. The effect of fiber optic technology greatly impacts the speed and magnitude of which we are able to receive and transmit information. Technology has become an inseparable element from today’s cultural experience. This incessant flow of sense provoking data accumulates within my paintings like a fashion runway powered by a particle accelerator. Contemporary particle physicists look at bits of matter during times during times of extremely elevated levels of energy, speed, and impact. My artwork directly references these themes of bombarded space and overwhelm of stimuli through my use of color, relentless mark making, and layering of materials. I love that paint has the ability to perpetuate my touch whether it be catastrophic, toxic, or triumphant. A painting can possess such great action that might be so powerful that it overcomes you and you forget that the object you are looking at hangs 2.5” off the wall. I believe it was this power which artist Frank Stella alluded to in his 1999 essay, “The Artist of the Century,” in which he compares Hans Hoffman’s use of pigment to the force of a bomb.
Fiber Optic Fever (72 inches x 84 inches) Jet Set Clatter (60 inches x 72 inches)
Latin Jazz Arrangements for Cello Quintet
Paul T. Sulzer, Junior
Mentor: Prof. Jeffrey Solow, Violoncello & Chamber Music Studies
Latin jazz, one of the world’s most diverse genres of music, emerged in the 1940’s when musicians blended Afro-Cuban rhythms with American jazz structures. The cultural melting pots of New Orleans, Havana, and New York each contributed to bring Latin jazz into America’s musical life. Growing from its European and African roots, Latin jazz now pervades the globe and fuses elements from four continents. This project will transplant to a new medium a performance style traditionally done only by standard jazz instrumental combinations. The arrangements encompass a range of musical styles such as bossa nova, salsa, and bolero. My intention is to break through established musical barriers as five cellists perform my new Latin jazz arrangements in a variety of settings.
Using Macromedia Flash to Distribute Large Programs
James A. Visker, Sophomore
Mentor: Dr. Brian P. Butz, Electrical Engineering
Programs that use intelligent design and computer human interpretation are generally very large programs. A program with such specifications called PIES (Prostate Interactive Educational System) has been re-programmed using Flash Macromedia 8 to significantly reduce its size and increase its accessibility by putting it on the Internet for widely available use. PIES is a program that uses an interactive doctor’s office to educate men with prostate cancer about their treatment options, that when navigated through has over 200 videos and animations. It was originally programmed and run in Authorware, and was distributed on two CD’s. A downloadable version of the program could have been available, however the program was rather large with a total size of around 800MB, and would have been impractical and time consuming for the user. After re-programming, the required download size of the program has been reduced to under 6MB, and can be downloaded within a matter of seconds on most Internet connections. The user only needs to have the commonly used Macromedia Flash Player for their Internet browser. All of the videos are now progressively downloaded when accessed, so they may be accessed immediately while using the program. This eliminates the need to download any videos other than the ones the user is interested in watching. Using Macromedia Flash to re-program PIES has greatly increased accessibility and will be used in the future for other programs written in Authorware and similar programming software.
The Influence of Family Involvement on African American Males’ Progress inJuvenile Treatment Court
Elise M. White, Junior
Mentor: Dr. Mathew Hiller, Criminal Justice
Since their implementation in the early 1990s, Juvenile Drug Court has aimed to rehabilitate non-violent juvenile offenders while giving them a chance to clear their criminal record. Unlike Adult Drug Courts, Juvenile Drug Courts are tailored to involve the family of the clients and improve relationships between youth and their family. Past research studies have shown that family involvement that affects a juvenile’s entrance into the juvenile justice system and recidivism. However, very few studies have focused on family support within a JDC and it’s relation to program compliance. An observational study was done on 50 African American males who participated in the Philadelphia Treatment Court between June 13, 2006 and October 24, 2006. This study focused on each youth’s family involvement within treatment court. Involvement was measured by whether or not the family came to court with the youth. The results showed that overall, family involvement was low. Family involvement varied widely with some students having a family member present at each status hearing and others never having one appear with them. In addition the more involved a family member was; the greater the likelihood that the youth was compliant with the program. Therefore, additional efforts should be made to engage families in their child’s treatment court experience to improve program compliance among these individuals.
Novel Nuclease Inhibitor
Di Lisa Yan, Junior
Mentors: Dr. Scott Sieburth & Dr. Allen Nicholson, Chemistry
The objective of this research project is to develop efficient synthesis of derivatives of N-hydroxyhomophthalimide and determine their effectiveness as inhibitors of two-metal-ion-dependent nucleases. N-hydroxyhomophthalimide is an organic molecule that was reported to have inhibitory effects on many two-metal-ion-dependent nucleases. Nucleases are cellular enzymes that are essential to the replication of infective agents such as viruses and bacteria. The mechanism of these enzymes often involve the presence of divalent metal ions such as Mg2+, Mn2+, Co2+, or a combination of these metal ions. These divalent metal ions are typically located in the active sites of the enzymes. The activity of the enzymes can be inhibited by interactions between molecules such as N-hydroxhomophthalimide or its derivatives and the divalent metal ions. These interactions prevent appropriate substrates from binding to the enzymes, thus inhibiting the enzymes’ activities. The inhibition of these enzymes prevents replication of infective agents. Therefore, these inhibitor molecules have pharmaceutical functions. Derivatives of N-hydroxyhomophthalimide are synthesized by various organic chemical reactions such as nitration, reduction, and so on. These derivatives contain different chemical groups, thus exhibit different biochemical properties and inhibitory capacities. The inhibitory capacities of the derivatives are determined by biochemical techniques such as protein assay. The results of this research may provide both detailed descriptions of inhibition mechanisms of N-hydroxyhomophthalimide and its derivatives and potential pharmaceutical applications as anti-infective drugs for diseases such as influenza.