A reader of influential essays on the history and future of Title IX
Title IX and Social Change
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edited by Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist
Significant University Press Titles for Undergraduates, 2007-2008
One of the least-understood issues in federal sports policy, Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 reflects the nation's aspirational belief that girls and boys, women and men, deserve equal educational opportunities in athletics. Equal Play shows how this ideal has been implemented-and thwarted-by actions in every branch of the federal government.
This reader addresses issues in sports before Title IX and the backlash that has resulted from the policy being instituted. The editors have collected the best scholarly writing on the landmark events of the last four decades and couples these with new original essays, primary documents from court cases, administrative regulations, and relevant supporting sources. The result is the most comprehensive single-volume work on the subject.
Equal Play includes essays by many well-known sports journalists who discuss how government actions have shaped, supported, and hindered the goal of gender equality in school athletics. They discuss the history of women in sports, analyze the meaning of "equal opportunity" for female athletes, and examine shifts in arguments for and against Title IX. Equal Play will interest anyone who is concerned with gender issues in American athletics and the growth of college sports.
"Equal Play is a gem. Two nationally respected Title IX experts, one a lawyer and one an economist, have teamed up to accurately portray the origins of Title IX, the impact of its application and the complexity of the issue of gender equality in sport programs sponsored by educational institutions. The result is an insightful analysis of the difficulties encountered when federal social justice legislation challenges the culturally ingrained sexism of American sport."
"For any student of the history and arguments about Title IX, Equal Play is immensely valuable. It is a comprehensive and authoritative summary in support of young women's athletic rights."
"For being one of the most profound civil rights laws in the history of this country, Title IX is still a great mystery to many. Equal Play should be required reading in all history classes across this country. Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist do a wonderful job of providing much needed clarity on a federal sports policy that should be applauded every day of our lives."
"A particular strength of this collection is its strategic reliance on primary source materials, government documents, scholarly analyses, and contemporary writings to tell the story of Title IX’s impact on women’s sports and American society overall."
"[A] valuable edition to the literature...Recommended."
"In Equal Play, editors Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist bundle primary documents and administrative regulations with a diverse and excellent collection of excerpts from well known publications, essays, and speeches…Equal Play will prove to be an invaluable addition to your private collection of resources and references. Similarly, it would serve as an outstanding companion text for a number of courses or as a pre-course reading to establish a common baseline of knowledge regarding the historical, social, and legal context of Title IX…Equal Play is a well written and thoroughly researched text that provides a critical review of the historical, social and political context in which Title IX was conceived, became law, and now exists….[T]he arguments are clearly presented and supported by thorough documentation and research."
"Hogshead-Makar and Zimbalist have assembled an impressive array of contributors…They also include original legal documents, commission reports and recommendations, conservative political attacks on Title IX, and forceful counterarguments that respond to the attacks. The documents and data make this book a rich source of information for researchers and students."
Watch a video interview with Nancy Hogshead-Makar here.
"[It] provides a thorough investigation into the debate surrounding sports and Title IX.... Hogshead-Makar and Zimbalist do an excellent job of cutting through this debate by engaging three distinct discourses.... Overall, the book is a valuable resource for anyone interested in gender equity and public policy."
Part I: Women's Sports before Title IX
Part II: Staking a Claim: The First Decade
Part III: The Initial Backlash: The 1980s
Part IV: Accelerated Pace: The 1990s
Part V: The Second Backlash: 2001-2008