Policies on Academic Honesty and Integrity
Temple University believes strongly in academic honesty and integrity; therefore, any kind of academic dishonesty is prohibited. Essential to intellectual growth is the development of independent thought and respect for the thoughts of others. The prohibition against academic dishonesty is intended to foster this independence and respect. Primarily, the three types of academic dishonesty include the following: Plagiarism, Violating the Rules of an Assignment, and Cheating on Exams.
1. Plagiarism is the unacknowledged use of another person’s ideas, words, or assistance. Normally, all work done for courses, papers, examinations, homework exercises, laboratory reports, oral presentations is expected to be the individual effort of the student presenting the work. There are many forms of plagiarism: repeating another person’s sentence as your own, adopting a particularly apt phrase as your own, paraphrasing someone else’s argument as your own, or even presenting someone else’s line of thinking in the development of a thesis as though it were your own. All these forms of plagiarism are prohibited both by the traditional principles of academic honesty and by the regulations of Temple University. Our education and our research encourage us to explore and use the ideas of others, and as writers we will frequently want to use the ideas and even the words of others. It is perfectly acceptable to do so; but we must never submit someone else’s work as if it were our own, rather we must give appropriate credit to the originator.
Some sorts of plagiarism are obvious. Students must not copy someone else's examination answer or laboratory report, submit a paper written in whole or in part by someone else, or have a friend do an assignment or take a test for them. Other forms of plagiarism, however, are less obvious. We provide below some guidelines concerning the types of materials that should be acknowledged through an acceptable form of citation.
Quotations. Whenever you use a phrase, sentence, or longer passage written (or spoken) by someone else, you must enclose the words in quotation marks and indicate the exact source of the material. This applies also to quotations you have altered, whether the source is an article, journal, book, or material from the internet.
Paraphrasing another's language. Avoid closely paraphrasing another's words: substituting an occasional synonym, leaving out or adding an occasional modifier, rearranging the grammar slightly, just changing the tenses of verbs, and so on. Either quote the material directly, using quotation marks, or put the ideas completely in your own words. In either case, acknowledgement is necessary. Remember: expressing someone else's ideas in your own way does not make them yours. This includes ideas and articles taken from the Internet. “Public domain” material must be cited.
Facts. In a paper, you will often use facts that you have gotten from a lecture, a written work, or some other source. If the facts are well known, it is usually not necessary to provide a source. (In a paper on American history, for example, it would not ordinarily be necessary to give a source for the statement that the Civil War began in 1861 after the inauguration of Abraham Lincoln.) But if the facts are not widely known or if the facts were developed or presented by a specific source, then you should identify the source for the facts.
Ideas. If you use an idea or ideas that you learned from a lecture, written work, or some other source, then you should identify the source. You should identify the source for an idea whether or not you agree with the idea. It does not become your original idea just because you agree with it.
In general, all sources must be identified as clearly, accurately, and thoroughly as possible. When in doubt about whether to identify a source, either cite the source or consult your instructor. When preparing a paper, you should ask your instructor whether he or she expects you to use footnotes, and whether all sources consulted should appear in a bibliography or only those from which you used material.
2. Violating the Rules of an Assignment
Academic course work is intended to advance the skills, knowledge, and intellectual competence of students. It is important, therefore, that students not behave in such a way as to thwart these intentions. When students are given assignments, the instructor will normally explain the rules under which the assignment is to be carried out. A student who does not understand the rules should ask the instructor for clarification. These rules are intended to make the assignment an educational experience and to make certain that the students' accomplishments on the assignment can be fairly evaluated.
Academic cheating is, in general terms, the thwarting or breaking of the general rules of academic work and/or the specific rules of individual courses. It includes falsifying data; submitting, without the instructor's approval, work in one course which was done for another; helping others to plagiarize or cheat from one's own or someone else's work; downloading material from the internet and submitting it as one’s own work, or actually doing the work of another person.
Another form of academic cheating occurs when work is submitted as if produced according to instructions when actually it is produced by some other means, or is simply invented. When students are given an assignment, it is assumed that they will do their own work. A student should not make up data for a report or prepare a report without doing the assignment. If the assignment has called for the collection of data, perhaps through social or laboratory experiment, then the significance of the cheating can be great.
A special case of such cheating occurs when students avoid the expected work of an assignment not by drawing upon the work of others but by drawing upon their own work, already done for another course - for instance, by submitting a paper from one course to fulfill an assignment for another. This is academic cheating, since it frustrates the aims of the assignment. It avoids the development of skill, knowledge, and competence for which the assignment was made. When an instructor assigns a paper to be written outside class, he or she assumes that a student will prepare a paper specifically for that course. This does not mean, of course, that students should avoid building upon their previous work. All education, and especially education within a major field, assumes a continuous building upon what has been previously learned. For the purpose of course work, however, work you have already done should be regarded as if it were the work of someone else. Specific use of that work must be appropriately acknowledged. And substitution of that work for a current assignment is a form of cheating unless specifically permitted by the instructor. If you wish to use a paper that you have prepared for another course, you should obtain permission from your instructor.
3. Cheating on Examinations
Examinations are intended to test your understanding and retention of the material covered in a course. If you obtain help from other students during the examination, you have cheated. Thus, reading another student's answers while you are taking an examination is cheating.
When an examination is given in class, the instructor will usually assume (or explicitly state) that it is a "closed book" exam. If it is, students should not use notes or any other written aids in taking the exam. If you are unsure, ask. When an examination is given out of class as a 'take home exam;' it is normally assumed that you may use class notes, texts, or even material from the library that is properly cited. Your teacher also assumes that you will complete the examination alone. You should not obtain help from fellow students in developing your answers and turn them in as if they were your work. Again, if you are unsure, ask.
Penalties for Academic Dishonesty
The penalty for dishonesty can vary from a reprimand and receiving a failing grade for a particular assignment, to failure for the course, to suspension or expulsion from the University. The penalty varies with the nature of the offense, the individual instructor, the department, and the school or college.
With the QA/RA program of the School of Pharmacy, all accusations of academic dishonesty are submitted in writing to the Assistant Dean and the Academic Coordinator, who review the facts and may forward the case to the Graduate Committee. The Graduate Committee will consider the facts in light of University and School of Pharmacy Policies on Academic Honesty and determine if sanctions should be imposed. The penalty for academic dishonesty can vary depending on the nature of the offense. The Committee will inform the Assistant Dean of its final decision before the end of the following semester so that the instructor and student can be notified. Faculty members are encouraged to submit their recommendations to the Assistant Dean or Director of Graduate Studies in writing so that their input may be considered in the final decision made by the Graduate Committee.
Students who believe that they have been unfairly accused may appeal the decision of the instructor according to the policies and procedures of the school. The student should first speak with the instructor. If that does not resolve the matter, the student should submit a formal letter to the Assistant Dean and Director of Graduate Studies stating what happened. These materials will be referred to the Grievance Committee of the school for further action.
For more information about what constitutes Academic Dishonesty or about disciplinary and/or academic grievance procedures refer to the University’s Statement on Academic Honesty and the Student Code of Conduct or contact the Student Orientation Office, 215-204-8531.