- What is music therapy?
- With whom is music therapy used?
- Where do music therapists work?
- What do the clients do in music therapy?
- Do the clients have to be musicians?
- What determines how the music will be used?
- What do music therapists actually do?
- What qualities should a music therapist have?
- How do I become a music therapist?
- How do I select a college or university?
- How should I prepare for admission to a program?
- What are certification requirements?
- What are the career possibilities?
- How is the job market?
- How much do music therapists earn?
- What organizations represent music therapy?
- Does music therapy exist in other countries?
- How do I learn more about music therapy?
- What books should I read first?
WHAT IS MUSIC
Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the therapist
uses music and all of its facets-physical, emotional, mental, social,
aesthetic, and spiritual-to help clients to improve or maintain
their health. In some instances, the client's needs are addressed
directly through music; in others they are addressed through the
relationships that develop between the client and therapist.
WITH WHOM IS
MUSIC THERAPY USED?
Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety
of conditions, including: psychiatric disorders, medical problems,
physical handicaps, sensory impairments, developmental disabilities,
substance abuse, communication disorders, interpersonal problems,
and aging. It is also used to: improve learning, build self-esteem,
reduce stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host
of other health-related activities.
WHERE DO MUSIC THERAPISTS
Music therapists work in general hospitals, psychiatric facilities,
schools, prisons, community centers, training institutes, private
practices, and universities.
WHAT DO THE CLIENTS
DO IN MUSIC THERAPY?
What makes music therapy different from every other form of therapy
is its reliance on music. Thus, every session involves the client
in a musical experience of some kind. The main ones are improvising,
re-creating, composing, and listening to music.
- In those sessions which involve improvising, the client
makes up his or her own music extemporaneously, singing or playing
whatever arises in the moment. The client may improvise freely,
responding spontaneously to the sounds as they emerge, or the
client may improvise according to the specific musical directions
given by the therapist. Often the client is asked to improvise
sound portraits of feelings, events, persons, or situations that
are being explored in therapy. The client may improvise with the
therapist, with other clients, or alone, depending on the therapeutic
- In those sessions which involve re-creating music, the
client sings or plays precomposed music. This kind of music experience
may include: learning how to produce vocal or instrumental sounds,
imitating musical phrases, learning to sing by rote, using musical
notation, participating in sing-alongs, practicing, taking music
lessons, performing a piece from memory, working out the musical
interpretation of a composition, participating in a musical show
or drama, and so forth.
- In those sessions which involve composing, the therapist
helps the client to write songs, lyrics, or instrumental pieces,
or to create any kind of musical product, such as music videos
or audiotape programs. Usually the therapist simplifies the process
by engaging the client in easier aspects of the task (e.g., generating
a melody, or writing the lyrics of a song), and by taking responsibility
for more technical aspects (e.g., harmonization, notation).
- In those sessions which involve listening, the client
takes in and reacts to live or recorded music. The listening experience
may focus on physical, emotional, intellectual, aesthetic, or
spiritual aspects of the music, and the client may respond through
activities such as: relaxation or meditation, structured or free
movement, perceptual tasks, free-association, story-telling, imaging,
reminiscing, drawing, and so forth. The music used for such experiences
may be live or recorded improvisations, performances or compositions
by the client or therapist, or commercial recordings of music
literature in various styles (e.g., classical, popular, rock,
jazz, country, spiritual, new age).
- In addition to these musical types of experiences, music therapists
often engage clients in verbal discussions. Clients may be encouraged
to talk about the music, their reactions to it, or any thoughts,
images, or feelings that were evoked during the experience. Clients
may also be encouraged to express themselves through the other
arts, such as drawing, painting, dance, drama or poetry. Music
therapy sessions for children often include various games or play
activities which involve music.
DO THE CLIENTS HAVE
TO BE MUSICIANS?
No, clients do not have to be musicians to participate in or benefit
from music therapy. In fact, because most clients have not had previous
musical training, music therapy sessions are always designed to
take advantage of the innate tendencies of all human beings to make
and appreciate music at their own developmental levels.
- Music therapists believe that all individuals, regardless of
age or musical background, have a basic capacity for musical expression
and appreciation. This basic capacity does not require the special
talents or extensive training that highly accomplished musicians
have, but rather stems from general learnings and achievements
that occur during the normal process of human development. Put
another way, the process of human development prepares everyone
to be a music-maker and music-loverat a basic, but not necessarily
professional, level. This basic or normal capacity for music includes
the potential for learning to: sing, play simple instruments,
move to music, react to the elements of music, perceive relationships
between sounds, remember music, image to music, and ascribe meaning
to musical experience.
- Of course, in clinical situations, music therapists often encounter
clients who have physical or mental impairments that interfere
with these basic musical potentials. In fact, much can be learned
about the nature of the client's impairment by assessing which
of the basic musical potentials are missing or inadequately developed.
For example, a client with a communication disorder may be unable
to: sing, articulate lyrics, reproduce rhythms or melodies, order
sound sequences, or participate in a musical ensembledepending
upon the specific nature of the disorder.
- Care is always taken to adapt music therapy experiences to the
capabilities of the client and to avoid anything that might cause
harm or unnecessary pain of any kind. Music therapists also screen
clients who may have adverse psychological or psychophysiological
reactions to musical participation. Another important concern
is the client's preferences with regard to types of musical activities,
style of music, and medium of expression.
HOW THE MUSIC WILL BE USED?
Music therapy sessions are designed with several factors in mind.
First and foremost, the therapist has to select the types of music
experience to be used according to the goals of therapy and the
needs of the client. Each of the music experiences described above
requires something different from the client, and has a potentially
different effect. For example, improvising and composing are both
creative, but one is done extemporaneously and the other is not.
Moreover, the improviser produces his/her own music, while the composer
relies upon a performer. Continuing in this comparison, creating
one's own music is quite different from re-creating or performing
music already composed by someone else. A performer has to faithfully
convey the musical ideas of another person, while an improviser
or composer deals only with his or her own ideas. Finally, listening
is quite different from the other types of music experience because
it involves taking in and receiving the music, without being actively
involved in its creation or production. The listener is active in
a different way from the improviser, composer, and performer.
- The therapeutic implications of these differences are myriad.
For example, improvisation is most appropriate for clients who
need to develop spontaneity, creativity, freedom of expression,
communication, and interpersonal skillsas these are the
basic requirements of improvising. Many different clients manifest
these needs, from emotionally disturbed children to acting out
adolescents, and from developmentally delayed children to adults
with psychiatric disorders. Improvising enables these clients
to communicate and share feelings with others, while also helping
them to organize their thoughts and ideas in a meaningful way.
- Re-creative experiences are most appropriate for clients who
need to: develop sensorimotor skills, learn adaptive behaviors,
maintain reality orientation, master different role behaviors,
identify with the feelings and ideas of others, or work cooperatively
towards common goalsas these are basic requirements of singing
or playing pre-composed music. For example, individual singing
lessons can help individuals who have speech impairments to help
improve their articulation or fluency. In contrast, group singing
can build reality orientation in elderly individuals, or help
mentally retarded people develop adaptive behavior, or build cohesiveness
in a dysfunctional family or group.
- Playing instruments can help physically disabled clients to
develop gross and fine motor coordination. When combined with
reading notation, playing instruments can help learning disabled
children to develop auditory-motor or visual-motor integration.
With emotionally disturbed children, instrumental ensembles can
be used to overcome behavior problems and to control impulsivity.
Instruments can also help mentally retarded individuals to better
understand the world of objects.
- Activities involving composing music are used with clients who
need to learn how to make decisions and commitments, and to find
ways of working economically and within certain limitations. Often
the idea expressed in a composition is a thought or feeling which
is important to the person's life. Perhaps the best example is
song-writing. With hospitalized children, writing songs can be
a means of expressing and understanding their fears, and then
leaving them there on the paper! Song-writing can also provide
adults dying of cancer with a container for expressing their feelingsabout
life and deathwhile also serving as a parting gift to loved
ones. Clients with drug or alcohol addictions often find group
song-writing to be an excellent vehicle for examining irrational
beliefs and fears, and for documenting their intention to change.
- Music listening experiences are used with clients who need to
be activated or soothed physically, emotionally, intellectually
or spirituallyas these are the kinds of responses that music
listening elicits. For example, hospitalized patients find music
listening helpful in relaxing, reducing stress, managing pain,
and regulating body functions such as heart rate, breathing. It
can also be arousing, energizing, and reassuring. With psychiatric
patients, listening to songs invariably accesses ideas and thoughts
that need to be examined and discussed, while also bringing to
the surface feelings that need to be expressed and shared. With
individuals in psychotherapy, music listening can be used to stimulate
images, fantasies, associations, and memories, all of which contribute
immeasurably to the process. And with elderly individuals, listening
to music can facilitate structured reminiscence or a review of
- With learning disabled and mentally retarded children, perceptual
listening tasks can be used to build auditory processing skills.
Listening to songs and following the lyrics can also help these
children to learn and memorize colors, numbers, vocabulary, behavior
sequences and a host of other academic subjects. Finally, with
all client populations music listening is of inimitable value
in bringing about spiritual highs or peak experiences. Such experiences
instill hope and courage, while reaffirming the beauty of life.
- The subtle and wonderful thing about music therapy is that,
in actuality, every musical experience can be adapted to meet
a broad spectrum of client needs. For example consider how: improvising
can be adapted to explore experiences of structure as well as
freedom: re-creating music can be adapted to encourage free self-expression
as well as compliance with the score; composing can be adapted
to require spontaneity as well as planned decision-making; and
listening can be adapted to be active as well as passive, or physical
as well as intellectual.
WHAT DO MUSIC THERAPISTS
Working as a music therapist essentially involves preparing, conducting,
evaluating and documenting sessions with clients. Working with a
client usually begins before the first session. The first step is
to collect the necessary background information by reviewing any
written records or referrals that may be available. Then in the
first session, the music therapist usually conducts an assessment
to determine the client's strengths and therapeutic needs. In a
music therapy assessment, information on how the client makes, responds
to, and relates to music is collected and analyzed, and then related
to other aspects of the client's life. Based on the assessment findings,
the music therapist formulates goals, sometimes with input from
the client, the client's family, other professionals, or an interdisciplinary
team of clinicians. Care is taken that the goals are realistic enough
to be accomplished within the time frame set for therapy. Once goals
have been set, the music therapist makes a treatment plan outlining
possible strategies and music experiences that might be helpful
in meeting the client's needs. In institutional settings, a meeting
is usually held to coordinate treatment efforts and to formulate
a program plan. As a result, the client is placed in individual,
family, or group sessions, and the treatment phase of music therapy
begins. Then after working with the client for a sufficient time,
the music therapist conducts periodic evaluations to determine whether
the methods of treatment are effective and whether the client is
making any progress in reaching the prescribed goals, When necessary,
adjustments are made in the goals or methods. Finally, when the
time comes for ending therapy, the music therapist prepares the
client for leaving and helps to bring some kind of closure to the
In addition to these clinical procedures, music therapists may
have other responsibilities, depending upon the work setting, the
client populations, and the therapist's job requirements. In hospital
settings, music therapists may develop listening programs to meet
various patient needs, produce shows or various kinds of musical
events involving patients, arrange for patients to attend concerts
in the community, or direct various kinds of recreational or therapeutic
activities. In schools, music therapists may consult with classroom
teachers or develop group music programs for special students. In
the community, music therapists may consult with psychologists or
psychiatrists, or provide musical instruction to special children.
Music therapists working in institutions also have other duties
such as ordering necessary equipment and supplies, and maintaining
them. As will be discussed later, music therapists may also have
positions which require administration, supervision, consultation,
WHAT QUALITIES SHOULD
A MUSIC THERAPIST HAVE?
Individuals who go into music therapy are typically musicians who
have a sincere desire to use their love and talents for music to
help others. Often there is an equal interest in music and psychology
- Musicianship is an essential quality. Being a music therapist
requires an in-depth understanding of the power of music, and
the ability to reach others through singing and playing instruments.
Music therapy students can major in any performance medium, however
most training programs place additional emphasis on piano, guitar
and voice, as these media are used most frequently in the clinical
setting. Music therapists also have to have a breadth of musical
knowledge and ability. They are frequently called upon to know
about or perform classical music as well as country, rock, jazz
and popular styles.
- The successful music therapist is in good physical and mental
health and has the motivation, stamina, and maturity necessary
for working with exceptional individuals in a therapeutic way.
It goes without saying that a therapist has to be a sensitive
and caring person who can accept differences in others. Just as
important, a therapist should also have the self-awareness and
emotional stability needed to enter a helping relationship with
individuals who have problems. The best therapists are those who
have healed themselves! This is why therapy is often recommended
as an essential experience for therapists, both during training
and at various times during their clinical career. Music therapists
should receive music therapy themselves!
HOW DO I BECOME A MUSIC
To become a music therapist, one has to complete an undergraduate
degree in music therapy (or it equivalence) at an accredited college
or university, do an approved internship of approximately 1040 supervised
clinical hours, and then obtain certification by passing a national
examination given by the Certification Board for Music Therapist
- Approximately 70 colleges and universities in the USA offer
bachelor's degrees and equivalency programs in music therapy.
The bachelor's degree usually requires about 130 semester hours
or credits plus the internship. This usually takes 4 1/2 years
to complete. The curriculum is divided into three main subjects:
1) Music (Theory, History, Performance, Composition, Conducting,
Ensembles, and Functional Piano, Guitar and Voice); 2) Music Therapy
(Foundations, Methods and Materials, Practicum, Research, etc.);
and 3) General Studies (English, Math, Languages, Psychology,
Physical Sciences, Humanities, Arts, etc.). In the internship,
the student works in a clinical agency under the direct supervision
of music therapists, and learns to assume the full range of responsibilities
of a professional.
- Equivalency programs are for students who already have a bachelor's
degree in an area other than music therapy. These programs usually
require the student to take all core music therapy courses at
the undergraduate level and to make up any deficiencies the student
may have in supportive areas such as anatomy, psychology, music,
etc. Essentially, equivalency students have to complete all courses
required in the undergraduate music therapy degree program which
they have not already taken. Those who already have a degree in
music performance or music education can usually complete an equivalency
program and the internship in about two years; students who do
not have a music degree may take significantly longer. Many students
work on a master's degree while completing equivalency requirements.
- Several colleges and universities offer a master's degree in
music therapy. It usually requires 30 semester hours or credits
beyond the undergraduate or equivalency program. The curriculum
consists of advanced courses in music therapy, music, and supportive
areas. A thesis or final project and a comprehensive examination
are also required. Typically, a master's degree takes two years
- A few universities offer doctoral degrees in music therapy.
Typically, these are housed in the music or music education department.
HOW DO I SELECT
A COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY?
Many factors enter into deciding where to study music therapy.
Certainly, the school's reputation, facilities, geographical location,
and faculty are important to consider, along with financial matters
and many other personal circumstances and preferences. In addition,
there are some important professional matters that warrant consideration.
- First, students should make sure that the college or university
is approved by the American Music Therapy Association, otherwise
they may not be eligible to apply for certification in the field.
- Second, students should select the college or university which
will best meet their particular interests and needs. It is essential
to talk to the faculty, to students currently enrolled, and when
possible, to graduates of the program. Inquire about the requirements
and the quality of training. Also find out about how the internship
experience is scheduled, structured and supervised, as there are
many different ways of designing this culminating part of the
HOW SHOULD I
PREPARE FOR ADMISSION TO A PROGRAM?
Three things will help the most: 1) Practice for the audition on
your major instrument. 2) Study the books on how to take the SAT
or GRE examinations so that you get your best score. 3) Start taking
piano or guitar lessons if you do not know how to play either.
WHAT ARE CERTIFICATION
Certification in music therapy is granted by the Certification
Board for Music Therapists: upon completion of a degree or equivalency
program in music therapy at a college or university approved by
the American Music Therapy Association, and upon satisfactory completion
of a nationally standardized examination on music therapy. Once
certified, every music therapist is also required to maintain and
update their knowledge and skills through continuing education.
WHAT ARE THE
Music therapists have many career options. They may be employed
as a practitioner or clinician, a consultant, an administrator,
a supervisor, or a college professor. Each option involves different
places of employment and different qualification requirements.
- Clinicians spend the majority of their time doing therapy with
clients. They may work in private or governmental agencies, including
hospitals, institutions, schools, clinics, residential treatment
centers, group homes, day-care centers, nursing homes, halfway
houses, partial hospitalization programs, community centers, institutes,
etc. Many states have established job titles for music therapists
and career ladders for advancement, while other states use a variety
of other positions and titles to employ music therapists. Local
school districts may also hire music therapists, some under the
title of therapist and others under the title of teacher.
- Not all clinicians are employed full-time by one agency. Many
music therapists have begun to establish private practices of
their own, or develop positions as clinical consultants with several
agencies. Music therapists who develop their own practices usually
have clients who know about music therapy or who are referred
by other health professionals. Music therapists who serve as consultants
work in an agency part-time, either providing diagnostic or treatment
services to certain clients or developing programs which can be
implemented by other staff members at the agency.
- To be a clinician or consultant in an agency or private practice,
the individual must be certified at the bachelor's level. When
the job market is poor, there is a tendency for employers to also
ask for the master's degree as a minimum qualification. A state
license is not currently required to practice music therapy, however
many states require certified music therapists to take an examination
before becoming eligible for employment in any state-operated
institution. School districts may also require an applicant to
be certified as a teacher as well as a music therapist.
- An administrator or supervisor directs clinical staff in a public
or private agency. When the agency has a large music therapy program,
the individual may be in charge of only music therapy; however,
in many instances the music therapy program is part of a larger
department which also includes other arts therapists, activity
therapists, or recreation therapists. Administrators and supervisors
have various responsibilities, including ordering and maintaining
equipment, developing and managing budgets, hiring and dismissing
staff, supervising and evaluating staff, etc. In most larger governmental
agencies, at least two years work experience and a master's degree
are required to become an administrator or supervisor. In smaller
private institutions however, there may be no additional requirements.
- Another career option is to become a college professor who trains
others to become music therapists. In addition to teaching classes,
professors supervise students in the clinic, evaluate students
for admission and retention, attend meetings, and perform a variety
of academic and administrative responsibilities. College professors
are also expected to do research and to write articles and books.
Some professors also continue to work part-time doing clinical
work. To be a college professor, an individual should have at
least a master's degree and three years of clinical experience.
To be promoted in a college or university, music therapists are
usually required to earn a doctorate.
HOW IS THE JOB
Many institutions and agencies maintain permanent full-time positions
for music therapists. These positions are usually advertised when
they become vacant. In addition, because music therapy is a relatively
new profession, and because music therapists work with diverse populations,
there are always opportunities to create new job openings. Often,
music therapists create their own positions by introducing themselves
to administrators, demonstrating to the clinical staff what music
therapy can do, and then consulting with the agency until a program
can be initiated. Although this takes time and energy, such promotional
efforts are a necessary and important aspect of being a music therapist.
Because music therapy has many young professionals working their
way up the career ladder, and because the career ladder often involves
extending one's expertise into related fields, jobs in music therapy
tend to turn over frequently.
As in other health and education professions, employment opportunities
in music therapy are influenced by the economy and the amount of
governmental funding given to health care and education programs.
Though employment opportunities vary from place to place, and from
time to time, music therapists who are committed and effective clinicians
tend to be successful in the job market.
HOW MUCH DO MUSIC
Music therapy salaries depend upon the individual's educational
and work experience, the employer institution, and the specific
job position. Average yearly salaries for clinicians range from
$29,000 to $38,000 depending upon the setting. Salary scales in
governmental agencies and schools tend to be higher than those in
the private sector. Administrators and supervisors can expect to
earn more than clinicians, depending upon background and experience
and the size of the program or staff under their direction. College
professors can also expect to earn a higher salary, especially those
who have doctorates.
REPRESENT MUSIC THERAPY?
There are two organizations in the USA representing the profession
and professionals of music therapy:
American Music Therapy Association (AMTA)
8455 Colesville Rd, .Suite 930
Silver Spring MD 20910
The Certification Board for Music Therapist (CBMT)
506 East Lancaster Avenue, Suite 102
Downingtown, PA 19335
Tel: 800-765-CBMT (2268) or 610-269-8900
AMTA membership numbers approximately 4,000 professionals and
students. Working in tandem, these associations serve the profession
and healthy community at-large by (1) establishing standards for
professional competence, ethical conduct, clinical services, and
education and training: (2) implementing these standards through
individual certification and institutional approval functions; (3)
promoting and disseminating research through publications; (4) familiarizing
the health, education, and legislative communities with the applications
of music therapy; and (5) developing employment opportunities.
DOES MUSIC THERAPY
EXIST IN OTHER COUNTRIES?
Yes, one can find music therapists and music therapy organizations
in many other countries. In fact, there is a world federation of
music therapy associations and world congresses are held every three
years. To find out more, write to the AMTA for an international
HOW DO I LEARN MORE
ABOUT MUSIC THERAPY?
First, go to the library and read! There are hundreds of books
and articles on music therapy and its myriad applications, and most
public and university libraries have a basic collection on the topic.
There are also three professional journals in the USA. Their titles
are: the Journal of Music Therapy, Music Therapy Perspectives,
and Music Therapy: Journal of the American Association for Music
Therapy,. Once you have an overview of the field, contact the
AMTA, and find out if there are any agencies near you that employ
music therapists, and ask for a list of colleges and universities
that offer music therapy programs. If possible, try to observe a
music therapist at work, or visit a music therapy class at a nearby
college, or attend one of the association conferences. These experiences
will deepen your understanding of the field significantly.
WHAT BOOKS SHOULD I
This depends upon what your particular interests are. For overviews
of different aspects of the field, any of the one listed on the
next page would be helpful, but keep in mind that there are many,
many more! To obtain books and materials on music therapy, contact:
3526 Washington Ave.
St. Louis MO 63103-1019
American Music Therapy Association (See above)
4 White Brook Road - Lower Village
Gilsum NH 03448
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MUSIC THERAPY
Aigen, K. (1998). Paths of Development in Nordoff-Robbins Music
Therapy. Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Aldridge, D. (1996). Music Therapy Research and Practice in Medicine.
London: Jessica Kingsley.
Bonny, H. & Savary, L. (1973). Music and Your Mind. New
Borczon, R. (1997). Music Therapy: Group Vignettes. Gilsum
NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Boxill, E. (1985). Music Therapy for the Developmentally Disabled.
Rockville MD: Aspen Systems.
Boxill, E. (1997). The Miracle of Music Therapy. Gilsum NH:
Bruscia, K. (1987). Improvisational Models of Music Therapy.
Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Bruscia, K. (1991). Case Studies in Music Therapy. Gilsum
NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Bruscia, K. (1998). Defining Music Therapy (Second Edition).
Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Bruscia, K. (1998). The Dynamics of Music Psychotherapy.
Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Bunt, L. (1994). Music Therapy: An Art Beyond Words. New
Davis, W., Gfeller, K., & Thaut, M. An Introduction to Music
Therapy: Theory and Practice. Dubuque IA: William C. Brown.
Froehlich, M. (Ed.). (1996). Music Therapy with Hospitalized
Children. Cherry Hill NJ: Jeffrey Books.
Furman, C. (Ed.). (1996). Effectiveness of Music Therapy Procedures:
Documentation of Research and Clinical Practice. Silver Spring
Gaston, E. (1968). Music in Therapy. New York: MacMillan.
Hanser, S. (1987). Music Therapist's Handbook. St. Louis:
Warren H. Green.
Heal, M., & Wigram, T. (1993). Music Therapy in Health and
Education. London: Jessica Kingsley.
Hibben, J. (1999). Inside Music Therapy: Client Experiences.
Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Katsh, S., & Merle-Fishman, C. (1998). The Music Within You.
Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Lee, C. (1996). Music at the Edge. New York: Routledge.
Levin, H., & Levin, G. (1998). Learning Through Music.
Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Maranto, C. Dileo (1991). Applications of Music in Medicine.
Silver Spring, MD: AMTA.
Maranto, C. Dileo (1993). Music Therapy: International Perspectives.
Pipersville, PA: Jeffrey Books.
Munro, S. (1984). Music Therapy in Palliative/Hospice Care.
St. Louis: MMB Music.
Nordoff, P. & Robbins, C. (1977). Creative Music Therapy.
New York: John Day.
Plach, T. (1980). The Creative Use of Music in Group Therapy.
Springfield IL: Charles C Thomas.
Prickett, C., & Standley, J. (Eds.) (1995). Research in Music
Therapy: A Tradition of Excellence. Silver Spring MD: AMTA.
Priestley, M. (1994). Essays on Analytical Music Therapy.
Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Robbins, C., & Robbins, C. (1980). Music for the Hearing
Impaired and Other Special Groups. St. Louis MO: MMB Music
Ruud, E. (1998). Music Therapy: Improvisation, Communication and
Culture: Gilsum NH: Barcelona Pub.
Unkefer, R. (1990). Music Therapy in the Treatment of Adults
with Mental Disorders. New York: Schirmer.
Wheeler, B. (Ed.). (1995). Music Therapy Research: Quantitative
and Qualitative Perspectives. Gilsum NH: Barcelona Publishers.
Wigram, T., Saperston, B., & West, R. (Eds.) (1995). The
Art and Science of Music Therapy: A Handbook. Chur, Switzerland:
Harwood Academic Publishers.
Wilson, B. (1996). Models of Music Therapy Interventions in School
Settings. Silver Spring MD: AMTA.
Music Therapy Brief by Kenneth E. Bruscia
1993 Barcelona Publishers
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publisher. This brochure is published on the Temple University Music
Therapy web site with permission from the publisher.