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Wenzhe Ho, MD, MPH


Wenzhe Ho, MD, MPH


Professor, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Professor, Anatomy and Cell Biology

Professor, Center for Substance Abuse Research

Professor, ABSL-III Lab, Wuhan University

Telephone: 215-707-8858

Fax: 215-707-8132

Email: wenzheho@temple.edu


Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine


Educational Background:


BS, Medicine, Hubei Medical College, Wuhan, China, 1978


Internship, First Teaching Hospital, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, 1982


MD, Pediatrics, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, 1983


Residency, First Teaching Hospital, Wuhan University School of Medicine, Wuhan, China, 1986


Fellowship, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1988


Postdoctoral training, Wistar Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1991


MPH, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 2006


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research Interests:



  • Innate immunity and viral infections (HIV and HCV)
  • Impact of drugs on host immunity related to HIV or HCV
  • Non-human primate (NHP) model of SIV and/or TB



  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Molecular/cellular biology




There are three research focuses in the Ho Laboratory:


I. Innate Immunity and Viral Infections: Using molecular/cellular biological, immunological and virological techniques, Dr. Ho’s laboratory studies the interactions between host cell innate immunity and HIV/HCV infections. While exploring host defense mechanisms, Dr. Ho’s laboratory is investigating how toll-like receptors and RIG-I, sensors for viral infections, recognize and control HIV or HCV replication in the target cells. In addition, Dr. Ho’s laboratory is studying the mechanisms of the CNS innate immunity in the neuroprotection against HIV/HCV. The CNS cells under examination include astrocytes, pericytes, microglia and endothelial cells, which are targets of infection/injury caused by HIV or HCV-mediated products.


II. Drugs of Abuse and HIV/HCV Infection: Due to the high frequency and severity of HIV and/or HCV infection in injection drug users, Dr. Ho’s laboratory is also investigating the role of drug abuse in the immunopathogenesis of HIV/HCV diseases. His collaborative research with the investigators in Wuhan CDC, China has shown how drugs of abuse (heroin) can suppress host immune responses and promote HIV and/or HCV diseases. Currently, Ho’s laboratory is studying the specific effects of drugs (morphine, methamphetamine, and alcohol) on IFN-mediated intracellular immunity against HIV and/or HCV.


III. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) and/or Tuberculosis (TB) Infected Non-Human Primates: In collaboration with the investigators at Center for Animal Experiment of Wuhan University where there is an animal biosafety level III laboratory, Dr. Ho and his colleagues have established non-human primate models for HIV and/or TB infection. Using these models, they are exploring the potential of innate immunity activation-based therapy for the treatment of HIV and/or TB diseases.


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professional affiliations:


  • Editorial Board, Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 1996-2002

  • Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology, 2000-present

  • Standing Member, NIH Study Section: NeuroAIDS and other End-Organ Diseases, 2004-2009

  • Visiting Professor, Wuhan Center For Disease Prevention and Control, 2006-present

  • Editorial Board, Chinese J. Pediatrics (International Edition), 2007-present

  • International Society for NeuroVirology, 2007-present

  • Editorial Board, J. Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 2007-present

  • Chief Editor for Virology: Research and Treatment, 2007-present

  • Editorial Board, Journal of Neurovirology, 2009-present
  • Member, Center for Substance Abuse Research (CSAR), Temple University School of Medicine, 2010
  • Award of Thousand Talents Program, China Central Government, 2010
  • Editorial Board, World Journal of Pediatrics, 2010-present
  • Editorial Board, Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases, 2011-present
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Clinical Hepatology (Chinese), 2011-present
  • Editorial Board, Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research, 2012-present
  • Editorial Boaard, PLOS-ONE Journal, 2012-present
  • Senior Research Excellence Award, Temple University School of Medicine, 2012

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25547788  Peña, J., and Ho, W-Z.: Monkey Models of Tuberculosis: Lessons Learned.  Infection and Immunity, 83:852–862, 2015

25572448  Zhou, Y., Sun, L., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Li, J-L., Liu, M-Q., Wang, F., Peng, J-S., Gui, X-E., Zhao, H-Q., Reichenbach, N., Zhou, D-J., and Ho, W-Z.:  Heroin Use Promotes HCV Infection and Dysregulates HCV-Related Circulating microRNAs.  J Neuroimmune Pharmacol., 10: 102-110, 2015

25723352  Li. J-L., Zhuang, K., Wu, G-Y., Ho, W-Z.: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of a Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Chinese Rhesus Macaque with HIV-Associated Dementia.  AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 31:272-3, 2015


24918575  Bao, R, Zhuang, K, Liu, JB, Wu, JG, Li, JL, Wang, X, and Ho, W-Z.: Lipopolysaccharide induces immune activation and SIV replication in Rhesus Macaques of Chinese origin.  Plos One, 2014 Jun 11;9:e98636


24866484  Guo, M, and Ho, W-Z.:  Animal models to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV co-infection.  Dongwuxue Yanjiu, 35:163-9, 2014


25053361  Mastrogiannis, D, Wang, X, Dai, M, Li, JL, Wang, Y-Z, Zhou, Y, Sakarcan, S, and Ho, W-Z.: Alcohol enhances HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages.  Current HIV Research, 12:301-8, 2014


25224753  Zhang, J., Xian, Q-Y., Guo, M., Huang, Z-X., Rao, Y., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Bao, R., Evans, TG. Hokey, D., Sizemore, D., and Ho, W-Z: M. tuberculosis Erdman Infection of Rhesus Macaques of Chinese Origin. Tuberculosis, 94:634-43, 2014


25268605  Wang, Y-Z, Li, J-L., Wang, X., Zhou, Y., Zhang, T., and Ho W-Z.: Comparison of antiviral activity of Lambda-interferons against HIV replication in macrophages.  Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, 2014 Sep 30. [Epub ahead of print]


25453343  Sang, M., Liu, J.B., Dai, M, Wu J.G., and Ho, W-Z.: Toll-like receptor 3 signaling inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication in macrophages from rhesus macaques.  Antiviral Res., 112: 103–112 , 2014


25547788  Peña, J., and Ho, W-Z.: Monkey Models of Tuberculosis: Lessons Learned.  Infection and Immunity, 2014 Dec 29, doi: 10.1128/IAI.02850-14. [Epub ahead of print]


1727500 Ho, W-Z., Lioy, J., Song, L., Cutilli, J.R., Polin, R.A., and Douglas, S.D.: Infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  J. Virol. 66:573-579, 1992.


7679409 Lioy, J., Ho*, W-Z., Cutilli, J.R., Polin, R.A., and Douglas, S.D.: Thiol suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro.  J. Clin. Invest. 91:495-498, 1993.  *Contributed equally


8704251 Ho, W-Z., Kaufman, D., Song, L., Cutillii, J.R., and Douglas, S.D.: Cystamine inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication in cord blood-derived mononuclear phagocytes and lymphocytes.  Blood.  88:928-933, 1996.


9548509 Ho, W-Z., Lai, J-P., Zhu, X.H., Uvaydova, M., and Douglas, S.D.: Human monocytes and macrophages express substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor.  J. Immunol. 159:5654-5660, 1997.


9949155 Hariharan, D., Douglas, S.D., Lee, B., Lai, J-P., Campbell, D.E., and Ho, W-Z.: Interferon-gamma upregulates CCR5 expression in cord and adult blood mononuclear phagocytes.  Blood.  93:1137-1144, 1999.


11274418 Lai, J-P., Ho*, W-Z., Zhan, G-X., Yi, Y., Collman, R.G., and Douglas, S.D.: Substance P antagonist (CP-96,345) inhibits HIV-1 replication in human mononuclear phagocytes.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98:3970-3975, 2001. *Contributed equally.


12829987 Zhang, T., Li, Y., Lai, J-P., Douglas, S.D., Metzger, D.S., O'Brien, C.P., and Ho, W-Z.: Alcohol potentiates hepatitis C virus replicon expression.  Hepatology 38:57-65, 2003.


15166542 Guo, C-J., Tan, N., Song, L., Douglas, S.D., and Ho, W-Z.: Alpha-defensins inhibit HIV infection of macrophages through upregulation of CC-chemokines.  AIDS 18:1217-1218, 2004.


16107965 Li, Y., Wang, X., Douglas, S.D., Metzger, D.S., Woody, G., Zhang, T., Song, L., Ho, W-Z.: CD8+ T cell depletion amplifies hepatitis C virus replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J. Infect. Dis. 192:1093-1101, 2005.


16175599 Zhang, T., Lin, R-T, Douglas, S.D., Yang, G., Maxcey, C., Ho, C., Lai, J-P., Wang, Y-J., and Ho, W-Z.:  Hepatitis C virus inhibits intracellular interferon alpha expression in human hepatic cell lines.  Hepatology 42:819-827, 2005. 


16000393 Wang, X., Tan, N., Douglas, S.D., Zhang, T., Wang, Y-J., and Ho, W-Z.:  Morphine inhibits the anti-HIV activity of CD8+ T cells in latently infected immune cells.  J. Leukoc. Biol. 78:772-776, 2005.


16251417 Wang, C-Q., Li, Y., Douglas, S.D., Wang, X., Metzger, D.S., Zhang, T., and Ho, W-Z.: Morphine withdrawal enhances hepatitis C virus replicon expression.  Am. J. Pathol. 167: 1333-1340, 2005.


16675550 Lai, J-P., Ho, W-Z., Kilpatrick, L.E., Wang, X., Kolchak, H.M., and Douglas, S.D.:  Full-Length and Truncated Neurokinin-1 Receptor (NK-1R) Expression during Monocyte-Macrophage Differentiation.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.  103:7771-7776, 2006.


16933366 Zhang, T., Li, Y., and Ho, W-Z.: Drug abuse, innate immunity and HCV.  Reviews in Medical Virology.  16:311-327, 2006.


17674315 Li, Y., Peng, J-S., Wang, C-Q., Zhang, T., Wan, Q., and Ho, W-Z.: Morphine inhibits intrahepatic interferon alpha expression coupled with full cycle HCV replication.  J. Infect. Dis. 196:719-730, 2007.


18458095 Liang, H., Wang, W., Chen, H., Song, L., Ye, L., Wang, S-H., Wang, Y-J., and Ho, W-Z.: Methamphetamine enhances HIV-1 infection of human macrophage.  Am. J. Pathol. 172:1617-1624. 2008.


19085952 Ye, L., Wang, X., Wang, S-H., Wang, Y-J., Song, L., Hou,W., Zhou L., and Ho, W-Z.: CD56+ T cells inhibit hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatocytes.  Hepatology, 49:753-762. 2008. 


19015395 Wang, X., Ye, L., Zhou, Y., Hou, W., and Ho, W-Z.: Cellular microRNAs expression correlates with susceptibility of monocyte/macrophage to HIV-1 infection.  Blood. 113:671-674, 2009. 


19166911 Zhou, L., He, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y-J., Zhou, Y., Ye, L., Hou, W., Ho, W-Z.: Activation of toll-like receptor-3 induces interferon-lambda expression in human neuronal cells.  Neuroscience. 159:629-637, 2009.


19193806 Hou, W., Wang, X., Ye, L., Wang, Y-J., Zhou, L., Yang, Z-Q., Riedel, E., and Ho, W-Z.: Interferon lambda inhibits HIV-1 infection of macrophages.  J. Virol.  83:3834-3842, 2009. 


20231901 Ye, L., Wang, X., Metzger, D.S., Riedel, E., Montaner, L.J., Ho, W-Z.: Upregulation of SOCS-3 and PIAS-3 impairs IL-12-mediated interferon-gamma response in CD56 T cells in HCV-infected heroin users.  PLoS One 5(3):e9602, 2010.


20636339 Zhou, Y., Wang, X., Liu, M., Hu, Q., Song, L., Ye, L., Zhou, D., Ho, W-Z.:

A critical function of toll-like receptor-3 in the induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities in macrophages.  Immunology. 2010 Jul 16. [Epub ahead of print]


20646875 Ye, L., Wang, S., Wang, X., Zhou, Y., Li, J., Persidsky, Y., Ho, W-Z.:  Alcohol impairs interferon signaling and enhances full cycle hepatitis C virus JFH-1 infection of human hepatocytes.  Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jun 18. [Epub ahead of print]


20878770 Li J, Hu S, Zhou L, Ye L, Wang X, Ho J, Ho W. Interferon lambda inhibits herpes simplex virus type I infection of human astrocytes and neurons.  Glia. 2011 Jan; 59(1):58-67. doi: 10.1002/glia.21076. Epub 2010 Sep 27.


21040279 Liu JP, Ye L, Wang X, Li JL, Ho W-Z. Cyclosporin A inhibits hepatitis C virus replication and restores interferon-alpha expression in hepatocytes. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 7. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00556.x. [Epub ahead of print]


20938809 Zhang J, Ye YQ, Wang Y, Mo PZ, Xian QY, Rao Y, Bao R, Dai M, Liu JY, Guo M, Wang X, Huang ZX, Sun LH, Tang ZJ, Ho W-Z. M. tuberculosis H37Rv Infection of Chinese Rhesus Macaques. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010 Oct 12. [Epub ahead of print]


21056582 Wang X, Ho W-Z. Drugs of abuse and HIV infection/replication: Implications for mother-fetus transmission. Life Sci. 2010 Nov 4. [Epub ahead of print]


21959967 Dai M, Liu J, Chen DE, Rao Y, Tang ZJ, Ho W-Z, Dong CY.:Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice. Cancer Gene Ther. 2012 Feb; 19:77-83. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2011.65. Epub 2011 Sep 30.


22057682 Li J, Ye L, Wang X, Hu S, Ho W-Z: Induction of interferon-λ contributes to toll-like receptor 3-mediated herpes simplex virus type 1 inhibition in astrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2012 Feb;90:399-406. doi: 10.1002/jnr.22758. Epub 2011 Nov 4.


21940748 Ye L, Wang X, Li J, Liu J, Ramirez SH, Wu J, Ho W-Z: Tetherin has negligible activity in restricting hepatitis C virus in hepatocytes. Innate Immun. 2011 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print]


21755286 Wang X, Zhang T, Ho W-Z: Opioids and HIV/HCV infection. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011 Dec; 6:477-89. Epub 2011 Jul 14.


21499846 Zhou L, Li J, Wang X, Ye L, Hou W, Ho J, Li H, Ho W-Z: IL-29/IL-28A suppress HSV-1 infection of human NT2-N neurons. J Neurovirol. 2011 Jun; 17:212-9. Epub 2011 Apr 16.


21324129 Li J, Ye L, Cook DR, Wang X, Liu J, Kolson DL, Persidsky Y, Ho W-Z:
Soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor inhibits neurotoxicity of LPS-activated macrophages. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Feb 15; 8:15.


21224041 Wang X, Ye L, Zhou Y, Liu MQ, Zhou DJ, Ho W-Z: Inhibition of anti-HIV microRNA expression: a mechanism for opioid-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of monocytes. Am J Pathol. 2011 Jan;178:41-7. Epub 2010 Dec 23.


21397004 Persidsky Y, Ho W, Ramirez SH, Potula R, Abood ME, Unterwald E, Tuma R: HIV-1 infection and alcohol abuse: neurocognitive impairment, mechanisms of neurodegeneration and therapeutic interventions. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jun; 25 Suppl 1:S61-70. Epub 2011 Mar 21. Review.


21749375 Cook DR, Gleichman AJ, Cross SA, Doshi S, Ho W, Jordan-Sciutto KL, Lynch DR, Kolson DL.: NMDA receptor modulation by the neuropeptide apelin: implications for excitotoxic injury. J Neurochem. 2011 Sep;118(6):1113-23. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07383.x. Epub 2011 Aug 8.


21940748  Tetherin has negligible activity in restricting hepatitis C virus in hepatocytes.  Ye L, Wang X, Li J, Liu J, Ramirez SH, Wu J, Ho W.

Innate Immun. 2012; 18(3):398-405. Epub 2011 Sep 22.


22359571  Morphine suppresses IFN signaling pathway and enhances AIDS virus infection.  Wang Y, Wang X, Ye L, Li J, Song L, Fulambarkar N, Ho W.

PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e31167. Epub 2012 Feb 16.


22558263  IFN-λ3 inhibits HIV infection of macrophages through the JAK-STAT pathway.  Liu MQ, Zhou DJ, Wang X, Zhou W, Ye L, Li JL, Wang YZ, Ho WZ.

PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35902. Epub 2012 Apr 27.


22591364  Modulation of Intracellular Restriction Factors Contributes to Methamphetamine-mediated Enhancement of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Virus Infection of Macrophages.  Wang X, Wang Y, Ye L, Li J, Zhou Y, Sakarcan S, Ho W.  Curr HIV Res. 2012 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]


22591692  CD56+ T cells inhibit HIV-1 infection of macrophages.  Hou W, Ye L, Ho WZ.  J Leukoc Biol. 2012 May 16. [Epub ahead of print]


22728816  Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits hepatitis C virus replication in human hepatic cells.  Ye L, Li J, Zhang T, Wang X, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Liu J, Parekh HK, Ho W.  Virus Res. 2012 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]


22768975   Li J, Ye L, Wang X, Liu J, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Ho W. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits endotoxin-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells.  J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Jul 6; 9:161.


23035017  Zhou Y, Guo M, Wang X, Li J, Wang Y, Ye L, Dai M, Zhou L, Persidsky Y, Ho W, TLR3 activation efficiency by high or low molecular mass poly I:C. Innate Immun : 2012 Oct 3


23060457  Wang Y, Ye L, Wang X, Li J, Song L, Ho W.  Retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) signaling of hepatic stellate cells inhibits hepatitis C virus replication in hepatocytes. Innate Immun. 2012 Oct 11. [Epub ahead of print]

23401273  Li J, Wang Y, Wang X, Ye L, Zhou Y, Persidsky Y, Ho W-Z., Immune activation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells inhibits HIV replication in macrophages.  Blood 121(15):2934-2942, 2013.


23463725  Ramirez SH, Reichenbach NL, Fan S, Rom S, Merkel SF, Wang X, Ho WZ, Persidsky Y. Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in macrophages by cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 May;93(5):801-10. doi: 10.1189/jlb.1012523. Epub 2013 Mar 5.


23529855  Wang Y, Li J, Wang X, Ye L, Zhou Y, Thomas RM, Ho W. Hepatitis C virus impairs TLR3 signaling and inhibits IFN-λ 1 expression in human hepatoma cell line. Innate Immun. 2014 Jan;20(1):3-11. doi: 10.1177/1753425913478991. Epub 2013 Mar 25. 


23647955  Wang Y, Li J, Wang X, Ye L, Zhou Y, Ho W. Induction of interferon-λ contributes to Toll-like receptor-3-activated hepatic stellate cell-mediated hepatitis C virus inhibition in hepatocytes. J Viral Hepat. 2013 Jun;20(6):385-94. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12040. Epub 2013 Jan 7.


23678169  Xu P, Huang Z, Gao X, Michel FJ, Hirsch G, Hogan RJ, Sakamoto K, Ho W, Wu J, He B. Infection of mice, ferrets, and rhesus macaques with a clinical mumps virus isolate. J Virol. 2013 Jul;87(14):8158-68. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01028-13. Epub 2013 May 15.


23744645  Wang Y, Wang X, Li J, Zhou Y, Ho W. RIG-I activation inhibits HIV replication in macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Aug;94(2):337-41. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0313158. Epub 2013 Jun 6.


23751096  Cen P, Ye L, Su QJ, Wang X, Li JL, Lin XQ, Liang H, Ho WZ. Methamphetamine inhibits Toll-like receptor 9-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Aug;29(8):1129-37. doi: 10.1089/AID.2012.0264. Epub 2013 Jul 5.


23855305  Wang Y, Li J, Wang X, Sang M, Ho W. Hepatic stellate cells, liver innate immunity, and hepatitis C virus. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Aug;28 Suppl 1:112-5. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12023.

23947613  Zhou Y, Bao R, Haigwood NL, Persidsky Y, Ho WZ. SIV infection of rhesus macaques of Chinese origin: a suitable model for HIV infection in humans. Retrovirology. 2013 Aug 15;10:89. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-89.


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