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Ana M. Gamero, PhDAna M. Gamero, PhD


Associate Professor, Biochemistry

Associate Professor, Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology

Associate Professor, Microbiology and Immunology

Telephone:  215-707-1268

Fax:  215-707-7536

Email: gameroa@temple.edu


Department of Biochemistry

Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology

Microbiology and Immunology


Educational Background:


BS, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 1990


PhD, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 1996


Postdoctoral fellowship, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, 1997


National Cancer Institute (NCI) Scholar, NCI, Frederick, MD, 2003


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Research Interests:


Research in my laboratory is focused on uncovering the molecular mechanism of type I IFN α/ß-induced apoptosis. We aim to define how the transcription factor, STAT2, shapes the decision making process to apoptosis and its role in cancer. Type I IFNs are a family of cytokines with multiple biological effects. They are approved drugs for the adjuvant treatment of certain malignancies and clinical trials have shown that IFN-α therapy prolongs patient survival, but only in a subset of patients. However, it is not clear how IFNs choose to disrupt tumor growth. For instance, the antitumor effects of IFN α/ß are unpredictable as IFN treatment of tumor cells can lead to either inhibition of cell growth or alternatively activation of apoptosis.


Type I IFNs induce the activation of the transcription factors: STAT1 and STAT2, which enter the nucleus assembled as STAT1 homodimers and/or STAT1/2 heterodimers in association with IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-9 collectively called ISGF3. STAT complexes bind to specific DNA elements found in the promoters of IFN inducible genes. While STAT1 homodimers bind to the gamma activation sequence (GAS), the ISGF3 complex binds to the interferon stimulated response element (ISRE) that together activate the expression of multiple genes that in turn mediate the biological activities of type I IFNs.




Work from my laboratory has accumulated evidence to define STAT2 as a critical component in mediating type I IFN-induced apoptosis.  Using tumor cells that are susceptible to the apoptotic effects of IFN-α, we have made several observations.  A loss of STAT2 impairs the activation of the mitochondrial-dependent death pathway and gene activation.  A conserved structural motif termed “PYTK” located in the SH2 domain of STATs when mutated in STAT2 alters the apoptotic effects of IFN-α.  Our studies have also revealed the lesser contribution of STAT1 homodimers in the induction of apoptosis by type I IFNs. In fact, a deficiency in STAT2 neither affects the activation of STAT1 nor the expression of STAT1 regulated genes.  


What my laboratory intends to elucidate is:

  • How STAT2 transmits apoptotic signals to cells destined to be killed
  • The existence of additional proteins that interact with STAT2 and together mediate apoptosis
  • The identification of a subset of STAT2 regulated apoptotic genes
  • Whether STAT2 is important in cancer prevention or tumor progression
  • The existence of spontaneous STAT2 mutations in the tumors of patients
These provocative questions are active areas of investigation in my laboratory. From a clinical perspective, we wish to determine whether defects in STAT2 function may be associated with less than optimal antitumor clinical responses seen with IFN-α therapy. Hence understanding the death signaling mechanism mediated by STAT2 will yield important information for better clinical application of IFNs as this transcription factor may serve as a molecular cancer biomarker for identifying patients who could benefit from IFN-α therapy.

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professional organizations:


  • Association for Cancer Research (AACR)
  • International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research (ISICR)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
  • New York Academy of Sciences (NYAS)

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Graduate Students:


Kevin KotredesKevin Kotredes


Email: tuc13559@temple.edu




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National Institutes of Health, NCI RO1 CA140499-01

Crosstalk between STAT2 and Bim in type I IFN Signaling    


National Institutes of Health, NCI K22 CA095326-01

A critical role for STAT2 in type I IFN-induced apoptosis


Pennsylvania Department of Health


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Recent Medically Related Publications, Obtained from PubMed (Click on PubMed ID to view abstract)

26595887. Duerr CU, McCarthy CD, Mindt BC, Rubio M, Meli AP, Pothlichet J, Eva MM, Gauchat JF, Qureshi ST, Mazer BD, Mossman KL, Malo D, Gamero AM, Vidal SM, King IL, Sarfati M, Fritz JH, Type I interferon restricts type 2 immunopathology through the regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Nat Immunol :()2015 Nov 23

26392462. Shao WH, Gamero AM, Zhen Y, Lobue MJ, Priest SO, Albandar HJ, Cohen PL, Stat1 Regulates Lupus-like Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Severity via Interactions with Stat3. J Immunol 195:9(4136-43)2015 Nov 1

25049377. McComb S, Cessford E, Alturki NA, Joseph J, Shutinoski B, Startek JB, Gamero AM, Mossman KL, Sad S, Type-I interferon signaling through ISGF3 complex is required for sustained Rip3 activation and necroptosis in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:31(E3206-13)2014 Aug 5

25024400. Sheikh F, Dickensheets H, Gamero AM, Vogel SN, Donnelly RP, An essential role for IFN- in the induction of IFN-stimulated gene expression by LPS in macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 96:4(591-600)2014 Oct

24895110. Yue C, Xu J, Tan Estioko MD, Kotredes KP, Lopez-Otalora Y, Hilliard BA, Baker DP, Gallucci S, Gamero AM, Host STAT2/type I interferon axis controls tumor growth. Int J Cancer 136:1(117-26)2015 Jan 1

24598055. Xu J, Zoltick PW, Gamero AM, Gallucci S, TLR ligands up-regulate Trex1 expression in murine conventional dendritic cells through type I Interferon and NF-?B-dependent signaling pathways. J Leukoc Biol 96:1(93-103)2014 Jul

24416652. Steen HC, Gamero AM, STAT2 phosphorylation and signaling. JAKSTAT 2:4(e25790)2013 Oct 1

23653476. Alazawi W, Heath H, Waters JA, Woodfin A, O'Brien AJ, Scarzello AJ, Ma B, Lopez-Otalora Y, Jacobs M, Petts G, Goldin RD, Nourshargh S, Gamero AM, Foster GR, Stat2 loss leads to cytokine-independent, cell-mediated lethality in LPS-induced sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:21(8656-61)2013 May 21

23570382. Kotredes KP, Gamero AM, Interferons as inducers of apoptosis in malignant cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res 33:4(162-70)2013 Apr

23139419. Steen HC, Nogusa S, Thapa RJ, Basagoudanavar SH, Gill AL, Merali S, Barrero CA, Balachandran S, Gamero AM, Identification of STAT2 serine 287 as a novel regulatory phosphorylation site in type I interferon-induced cellular responses. J Biol Chem 288:1(747-58)2013 Jan 4

22280068. Steen HC, Gamero AM, The role of signal transducer and activator of transcription-2 in the interferon response. J Interferon Cytokine Res 32:3(103-10)2012 Mar

22144678. Yue C, Soboloff J, Gamero AM, Control of type I interferon-induced cell death by Orai1-mediated calcium entry in T cells. J Biol Chem 287:5(3207-16)2012 Jan 27

21864028. Zhang Q, Sturgill JL, Kmieciak M, Szczepanek K, Derecka M, Koebel C, Graham LJ, Dai Y, Chen S, Grant S, Cichy J, Shimoda K, Gamero A, Manjili M, Bear H, Conrad D, Larner AC, The role of Tyk2 in regulation of breast cancer growth. J Interferon Cytokine Res 31:9(671-7)2011 Sep

21587163. Toscano MG, Ganea D, Gamero AM, Cecal ligation puncture procedure. J Vis Exp :51()2011 May 7

20645876. Steen HC, Gamero AM, Interferon-lambda as a potential therapeutic agent in cancer treatment. J Interferon Cytokine Res 30:8(597-602)2010 Aug

20233899. Gamero AM, Young MR, Mentor-Marcel R, Bobe G, Scarzello AJ, Wise J, Colburn NH, STAT2 contributes to promotion of colorectal and skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3:4(495-504)2010 Apr

20068068. Romero-Weaver AL, Wang HW, Steen HC, Scarzello AJ, Hall VL, Sheikh F, Donnelly RP, Gamero AM, Resistance to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis is linked to a loss of STAT2. Mol Cancer Res 8:1(80-92)2010 Jan

18698163. Maher SG, Sheikh F, Scarzello AJ, Romero-Weaver AL, Baker DP, Donnelly RP, Gamero AM, IFNalpha and IFNlambda differ in their antiproliferative effects and duration of JAK/STAT signaling activity. Cancer Biol Ther 7:7(1109-15)2008 Jul

17504213. Maher SG, Romero-Weaver AL, Scarzello AJ, Gamero AM, Interferon: cellular executioner or white knight? Curr Med Chem 14:12(1279-89)2007

17442890. Scarzello AJ, Romero-Weaver AL, Maher SG, Veenstra TD, Zhou M, Qin A, Donnelly RP, Sheikh F, Gamero AM, A Mutation in the SH2 domain of STAT2 prolongs tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 and promotes type I IFN-induced apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell 18:7(2455-62)2007 Jul

16601124. Gamero AM, Potla R, Wegrzyn J, Szelag M, Edling AE, Shimoda K, Link DC, Dulak J, Baker DP, Tanabe Y, Grayson JM, Larner AC, Activation of Tyk2 and Stat3 is required for the apoptotic actions of interferon-beta in primary pro-B cells. J Biol Chem 281:24(16238-44)2006 Jun 16

16413919. Gamero AM, Oppenheim JJ, IL-1 can act as number one. Immunity 24:1(16-7)2006 Jan

16337360. Gamero AM, Potla R, Sakamoto S, Baker DP, Abraham R, Larner AC, Type I interferons activate apoptosis in a Jurkat cell variant by caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms. Cell Signal 18:8(1299-308)2006 Aug

15879595. Kim HP, Korn LL, Gamero AM, Leonard WJ, Calcium-dependent activation of interleukin-21 gene expression in T cells. J Biol Chem 280:26(25291-7)2005 Jul 1

14998485. Gamero AM, Young HA, Wiltrout RH, Inactivation of Stat3 in tumor cells: releasing a brake on immune responses against cancer? Cancer Cell 5:2(111-2)2004 Feb

14769148. Navarro A, Frevel M, Gamero AM, Williams BR, Feldman G, Larner AC, Thrombomodulin RNA is destabilized through its 3'-untranslated element in cells exposed to IFN-gamma. J Interferon Cytokine Res 23:12(723-8)2003 Dec

14722125. Gamero AM, Sakamoto S, Montenegro J, Larner AC, Identification of a novel conserved motif in the STAT family that is required for tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem 279:13(12379-85)2004 Mar 26

12096086. Bauer JA, Morrison BH, Grane RW, Jacobs BS, Dabney S, Gamero AM, Carnevale KA, Smith DJ, Drazba J, Seetharam B, Lindner DJ, Effects of interferon beta on transcobalamin II-receptor expression and antitumor activity of nitrosylcobalamin. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:13(1010-9)2002 Jul 3

11278370. Gamero AM, Larner AC, Vanadate facilitates interferon alpha-mediated apoptosis that is dependent on the Jak/Stat pathway. J Biol Chem 276:17(13547-53)2001 Apr 27

10748192. Gamero AM, Larner AC, Signaling via the T cell antigen receptor induces phosphorylation of Stat1 on serine 727. J Biol Chem 275:22(16574-8)2000 Jun 2

9926943. Liu JH, Wei S, Burnette PK, Gamero AM, Hutton M, Djeu JY, Functional association of TGF-beta receptor II with cyclin B. Oncogene 18:1(269-75)1999 Jan 7

9607917. Wei S, Gamero AM, Liu JH, Daulton AA, Valkov NI, Trapani JA, Larner AC, Weber MJ, Djeu JY, Control of lytic function by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular regulatory kinase 2 (ERK2) in a human natural killer cell line: identification of perforin and granzyme B mobilization by functional ERK2. J Exp Med 187:11(1753-65)1998 Jun 1

8943427. Wei S, Liu JH, Epling-Burnette PK, Gamero AM, Ussery D, Pearson EW, Elkabani ME, Diaz JI, Djeu JY, Critical role of Lyn kinase in inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Immunol 157:11(5155-62)1996 Dec 1

7585540. Gamero AM, Ussery D, Reintgen DS, Puleo CA, Djeu JY, Interleukin 15 induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell function against autologous tumor cells in melanoma patient lymphocytes by a CD18-dependent, perforin-related mechanism. Cancer Res 55:21(4988-94)1995 Nov 1

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