MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_01C7E896.FEA93930" This document is a Single File Web Page, also known as a Web Archive file. If you are seeing this message, your browser or editor doesn't support Web Archive files. Please download a browser that supports Web Archive, such as Microsoft Internet Explorer. ------=_NextPart_01C7E896.FEA93930 Content-Location: file:///C:/205912A4/ICANNBoard.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" The ICANN by-laws provide that the organization’s Board of Directors shall be comprised of “fifteen voting members (‘Directors’),” including one President, and “six non-voting liaisons (‘Liaisons’)

ICANN BOARD OF DIRECTORS SELECT= ION PROCESS

 

by David G. Post and Michelle E. A= rnold

 =

 

The ICANN bylaws provide that the Board of Directors shall be comprised of fift= een voting directors,1 including one pres= ident,2 and six non-voting liaisons.3  Directors must be able to communicate in English,4 be of strong personal character,5 and di= splay knowledge of ICANN’s mission,6 = various Internet registries (gTLD, ccTLD, IP address), and Internet protocols.= 7

 

Directors are appointed by the following organizations within ICANN (with the number = of directors for which each organization is responsible noted in parentheses):=

 

        &= nbsp;   the Nominating Committee (8),8

the Address Supporti= ng Organization Council (2),9

the Country-Code N= ames Supporting Organization Council (2),10

        &= nbsp;   the Generic Names Supporting Organizatio= n Council (2),11 and

        &= nbsp;   the Board (1 President).12

        &= nbsp;  

  &nbs= p;         Non-voting liaisons are appointed by the followi= ng advisory committees:

            =             <= o:p>

            =             t= he ICANN At-Large Advisory Committee (1),13

            =             t= he ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee (1),14

            =             t= he ICANN Root Server System Advisory Committee (1),15

            =             t= he ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee (1),16

            =             t= he ICANN Technical Liaison Group (1),17 and

            =             t= he Internet Engineering Task Force (1).18

 

Director Appointments: The following organizations are responsible for nominating directors to the ICANN Board.

 

T= he ICANN Nominating Committee’s (“NomCom”) principle function is to appoint eight directors = to the Board,19 and the committee m= ust ensure that each ICANN Geographic Region (i.e. Africa, Asia/Australia/Pacif= ic, Europe Latin America/Caribbean, and North America)20<= /a> has at least one, and no more than five (not including the President), such Board representatives.21 

 

NomCom is comprised of voting delegat= es (as specified) from

 

the ICANN At-Large Advisory Co= mmittee (5),22

the ICANN Address Supporting Or= ganization Council (1),23=

the ICANN Country-Code Names = Supporting Organization Council (1),24=

        &= nbsp;   the ICANN Generic Names Supporting Organization

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;   including

the Commercial and Business Users Constituency (2),25 <= /span>

the gTLD Registrars Constituency (1),26

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;  the gTLD Regis= try Constituency (1),27

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;  the Intellectual Property Constituency (1),28

the Internet Service and Conn= ectivity Providers Constituency (1),29 an= d

        &= nbsp;           &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;  the Non-Commercial Users Constituency (1),30

        &= nbsp;   the ICANN Technical Liaison Group (1),31 and

        &= nbsp;   the Internet Engineering Task Force<= /span> (1).32

 

and one non-voting liaison from each of the following ICANN committees:<= /span>

 

the Governmental Advisory Committee,33

        &= nbsp;   the Root Server System Advisory Committee,34 and

        &= nbsp;   the Security and Stability Advisory Committee.35  &nb= sp;           

 

NomCom delegates may not be ICANN employees or paid consultants.36  They must be able to communicate in English37 and evidence strong personal character,38<= /sup> knowledge of ICANN’s mission,39 neutrality,40 and substantial Intern= et contacts.41  The committee operates primarily via teleconferences and email but may meet in person at ICANN conventions.= 42

 

In addition to the eight ICANN Board directors, the committee appoints repr= esentatives to other ICANN organizations as follows: the At-Large Advisory Commi= ttee (5),43 the Country-Code Names Suppor= ting Organization Council (3),44 and the Generic Names Supporting Organization Council (3).45  To fill any position, N= omCom evaluates each candidate through interviews, references, and a Statement of Interest.= 46

 

T= he ICANN Address Supporting Organization (“ASO”) advises the ICANN Board on Internet address policies.47  Pursuant to the Memo of Understand= ing dated October 21, 2004, between ICANN and the Number Resource Organization (NRO), 48 an independent organization comprised of the five Regional Internet Registries (“RIRs”)49 (i.e. AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, RIPE = NCC),50  <= /sup>the NRO acts as the ASO for ICANN.51

 

            =     The ASO is governed by the ASO Council,52 which is comprised of members of the NRO Council,53 to whom each  RIR appoints three representatives= (with two members selected by each RIR’s “policy forum” and one member by each RIR board).54  The ASO Council’s  meetings take place primarily= via monthly teleconferences.55

 

The ASO Council appoints two directors (from different Geographic Region= s) to the ICANN Board56 through electr= onic plurality voting following a series of candidate interviews.57  In addition to the director select= ion criteria provided by ICANN’s bylaws,58 the ASO Council also requires that candidates sign a Letter of Certification stating that they are in compliance with the ICANN director requirements.59  The ASO Council also appoints one voting delegate to the ICANN Nominating Co= mmittee.60

 

T= he ICANN Country-Code Names Supporting Organization (“ccNSO”) works to further universal country-code top-level domain polic= ies.61  Any ccTLD manager of an ISO 3166 country-code top-level domain62 may join by submitting an application to = the ccNSO Secretariat,63 and there are c= urrently no membership fees.64  Present ccNSO members include, amo= ng others, .au (Australia), .br (Brazil), .cu (Cuba), .ly (Libya), .sn (Senega= l), .us (the United States), and .uk (the United Kingdom).65  Meetings are held between one and = four times66 per year at ICANN convention= s.67

 

The organization is governed by the ccNSO Council,= 68 which is comprised of three elected ccNSO members from each Geographic Regi= on, three ccNSO members picked by the ICANN Nominating Committee, and non-voting liaisons from the ICANN At-Large Advisory Committee, the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee, and each ccNSO Regional Organization, if appointed.69  The ccNSO Council is required to meet four times per year,70 and it appoints two directors (from different Geographic Regions) to the ICANN Board71 and one voting delegate to the ICANN Nominating Committee72 via a written ballot majority during meet= ings.73

 =

T= he ICANN Generic Names Supporting Organization (“GNSO”) works to further generic top-level domain policies.74  It is governed by the GNSO Council= ,75 which consists of three GNSO members pick= ed by the ICANN Nominating Committee and two or three appointees (from different Geographic Regions) from each of the following constituencies76 comprising the GNSO:

 

The gTLD Registrars Constituency se= rves as an advocate and information liaison between gTLD Registrars and ICANN.  To become a member, a registrar mu= st submit an application77 and fee ($25= 00)78 to ICANN and have $70,000 in w= orking capital.79  Following approval, the registrar = must enter into an agreement with ICANN and begin payment of annual dues80 (currently $4,000).81  In addition to its GNSO Council appointees, the gTLD Registrars Constituency appoints one voting delegate to the ICANN Nominating Committee.82

 

The gTLD Registry Constituency acts= as an advocate and information liaison between the various gTLD Registries and IC= ANN “with particular emphasis on . . . consensus policies that relate to interoperability, technical reliability and/or stable operation of the Inte= rnet or domain name system.”83  It is comprised of those gTLD Regis= tries currently under contract with ICANN who have applied for membership and continue to pay the required membership fees.8= 4  Current membership is comprised of= both sponsored TLD members (i.e. those whose policy formation is governed by an entity other than ICANN, including .aero, .cat, .coop, .jobs, .mobi, .museu= m, .tel, and .travel),85 and unsponsore= d TLD members (i.e. those whose policy formation is done by ICANN, inc= luding .biz, .com, .info, .name, .net, .org, and .pro).86  Meeting schedules vary from year t= o year (from five in 2005 to three in 2006),87 with meetings taking place primarily during ICANN conventions.88  The gTLD Registry Constituency appoints its GNSO Council delegates by a simple majority vote where one member delegate is chosen by sponsored TLD members while the other is chosen by unsponsored TLD members.89  The constituency also appoints one voting delegate to the ICANN Nominating Committee90 through a complex voting system where a candidate must obtain a major= ity vote from the full gTLD Registry, as well as both the sponsored and unspons= ored members.91

 

The = Internet Service and Connectivity Providers Constituency (“ISPCP”) functions as an interest group for Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”).92  Any business may join the ISPCP as long as it demonstrates, in its application to the ISPCP Secretari= at, that it is affected by the GNSO’s activities and that its delegates w= ill actively participate in the ISPCP.93  Current members include, among othe= rs, British Telecom, Deutsche Telekom, France Telecom, Interland, and Mindspring.94  The ISPCP acts via meetings (three = are currently scheduled for 2007) and interim teleconferences.95  In addition to its GNSO Council appointees,96 the ISPCP appoints = one voting delegate to the ICANN Nominating Committee.97

 

The Commercial and Business Users = Constituency (“BC”) represents e-tailers and works with ICANN to ensure that adopted polici= es promote Internet business.98 Members= hip is open to any commercial Internet user who sends an application and the applicable membership fee to the BC Secretariat99 and who opts-in to the BC mailing list.100  Current members include, among othe= rs, Chanel, Ebay, Microsoft, the Motion Picture Association, The Walt Disney Company, Verizon, and Yahoo!.101  Meetings are held within ICANN conventions (two to four times per year),102<= /a> and also via teleconferences.103  The BC appoints its “two or t= hree”104 GNSO Council delegates105 through email voting106 calculated on a simple majority;107 however, BC members may have either one= , two, or three indivisible votes depending on membership category.108  = The BC Constituency also appoints two voting delegates to the ICANN Nominati= ng Committee.109=

 

The Non-Commerc= ial Users Constituency (“NCUC= ”) provides a voice for non-commerc= ial internet users in fields such as education, religion, human rights, and pub= lic policy.110  To be eligible for membership, an = organization must pursue non-commercial activities, be organized or incorporated under a not-for-profit status, have exclusive use of at least one domain name,= 111 and may not include political organizations, not-for-profit organizations working to assist commercial organizations, or organizations belonging to any other ICANN Supporting Organization.112  Where this criteria is met, the organization may join the NCUC by submitting an application and a membership fee ($50 for organizations with under 1000 members or 200 employees and $100 for organizations with more than 1000 members or 200 employees) to the NCUC Secretariat.113  Members presently include, among others, the American Civil Liberties Union, the American Library Association, EDUCAUSE, Open Forum of Cambodia, and PeaceNet Korea.114  Meetings are held several times a = year at ICANN conventions.115  The NCUC is governed by an Executive Committee consisting of individuals appointed by t= he constituency through online voting,116 and the constituency appoints its GNSO Council delegates in the same manner.117  = Additionally, the NCUC Executive Committee appoints one delegate to the ICANN Nominati= ng Committee118 through a simple majority vote.119

 

The = Intellectual Property Constituency (“I= PC”) advises ICANN about the Intellec= tual Property implications of ICANN’s policies.120  There are various categories <= /sup>of membership,121 but any individual or organization involved in Intellectual Property may join122 by filling out an application and payin= g the appropriate membership fee.123  Members currently include, among ot= hers, the American Intellectual Property Law Association, the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers, Broadcast Music, Inc., the Arab Society= of Intellectual Property, the European Communities Trademark Association, the Motion Picture Association of America, the Recording Industry Association of America, and the IP Institute of Canada.124  Meetings are held between two and e= ight times per year, both in person and via teleconference.125  = The IPC appoints its GNSO Council delegates126 through a majority vote127 by the I= PC Council,128 which is comprised of o= ne voting participant from each Category 2129 (national Intellectual Property organizations)130 and Category 3131 (international Intellectual Property organizations)132 members.  The full IPC constit= uency appoints one voting delegate to the ICANN Nominating Committee.133

 

GNSO Council meetings are held throughout the year via teleconference, and also during ICANN coventions.134  The Council appoints two direct= ors to the ICANN Board135 via email ba= llots.136  GTLD Registrar and Registry Council representatives each have two votes, while a= ll other members have one.137

 

Advisory Committees: The following organizations are responsible for nominating non-voti= ng liaisons to the ICANN Board.

 

T= he ICANN At-Large Advisory Committee (&#= 8220;ALAC”) serves as an internal ICANN advocate and liaison for individual Internet us= ers.138  = Committee members are appointed as follows: (1) five members by the ICANN Nominating Committee (each from different Geographic Regions),139 and (2) two members from each ICANN Regional At-Large Organization (“RALO”)140 (i.e. AFRALO, ASIAPAC, EURALO, LAC RALO, and NARALO), each correspond= ing with and covering one ICANN Geographic Region.141

 

The RALOs act as middle-men between ICANN (throu= gh ALAC) and the individual internet user, as each RALO is comprised of independent certified organizations of individual Internet users (called At-Large Structures or “ALS”) within a particular Geographic Region.142  To form an ALS, an application is submitted to ICANN showing that the structure meets the minimum criteria for an ALS (which includes that it must: be self-supporting, agree to serve as a liaison between individual Internet us= ers and ICANN, be predominantly run by individuals within its particular Geogra= phic Region, maintain an up-to-date website, and act in tandem with the Geograph= ic Region’s Regional At-Large Organization).143  An ALS will be certified by ICANN = it if obtains approval from two-thirds of the ICANN At-Large Advisory Committee.<= sup>144  = ALSes currently certified by ICANN include, among others, the Internet Societies = of Belgium, Finland, Italy,145 Morocco= , and Sudan.146=

 

While schedules vary between RALOs, RALO meetings are currently held between one<= sup>147 and three= 148 times per year, either individually,149<= /a> at ICANN meetings,150 or together w= ith ALSes from other Geographic Regions.151

 

ALAC meets during ICANN conventions and also during teleconferences throughout t= he year.152  ALAC appoints one non-voti= ng liaison to the ICANN Board,153 five = voting delegates to the ICANN Nominating Committee,154 and non-voting liaisons to the ICANN Generic Names Supporting Organizati= on Council155 and the ICANN Country-Co= de Names Supporting Organization.156  Elections are by majority vote; 157 however, an individual must receive at = least five votes to take office.158   

 

  &nbs= p;         The ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee = (“GAC”) represents governmental inte= rests,159 particularly where ICANN’s polici= es may conflict with national or international law.1= 60  Any national government161 may appoint an elected official or a public-policy-based employee as its representative on the committee.162  = Multinational and treaty organizations may also appoint representatives, but only followi= ng an invitation from the chair of the GAC.163  To effect membership, a country or organization must simply provide the GAC Chair with the name and contact details of the selected representative.164  The GAC holds meetings three or four times per year, normally in conjunction with ICANN conventions,165 and appoints one non-voting liaison = each to the ICANN Board166 and the ICANN No= minating Committee.167  

 

  &nbs= p;         The ICANN Root Server System Advisory Committee (“RSSAC”) advises the ICANN Board and oversees security and operation of root name servers.168  Members are appointed by the ICANN Board, but also include “each operator of an authoritative root name server.”169  The committee meets approximately three times per year, normally during Internet Engineering Ta= sk Force meetings.170  RSSAC appoints one non-voting l= iaison each to the ICANN Board171 and the = ICANN Nominating Committee.172

 

  &nbs= p;         The ICANN Security and Stability Advisory Committee (“SSAC”) creates standardized secur= ity procedures and liaises with Internet operators to ensure that Internet “naming and address allocation systems” are so secured.173  = The ICANN Board appoints the SSAC174 from a pool of “= technically  competent” professionals culled from registrars, registries, and the security sector,<= sup>175 <= /sup>and SSAC meetings are he= ld at ICANN conventions.176  The SSAC appoints one non-voting= liaison each to the ICANN Board177 and the = ICANN Nominating Committee.178

 

T= he ICANN Technical Liaison Group (“TLG”) “represents standards bodies”179 and acts as both a watchdog and the ICA= NN Board’s technical information resource.= 180  The TLG is comprised of the follow= ing organizations,181 each of which app= oints two members as TLG technical experts.182 =  These eight technical ex= perts determine between themselves which organization is best suited to answer and advise on particular questions received from the ICANN Board.183

 

The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (“ETSI”) acts independently to effect European information and communication technology standards.184  Any organization throughout the wo= rld with an interest in communications standards may join ETSI185 by submitting an application and fee fo= r the requested membership tier.186  Members currently include, among ot= hers, Kenwood Electronics Europe, Malta Standards Authority, MasterCard Europe, Radio Fra= nce, Renault, Siemens, Sky Interactive, and Texas Instruments.187  Members may attend ETSI seminars to inform themselves of current standards and applications188 and to develop such standards through consensus.189  

 

The International Telecommunication Union’s Telecommunication Standardization Sector (“ITU-T”) works independently to implement international telecommunicati= ons service “technical and operating standards” through interaction between governments and private organizations.190  Membership is open to scientific and industrial organizations, financial institutions, organizati= ons operating broadcasting services, states in which such broadcasting services operate, and telecommunications organizations= 191  and is obtained by submittin= g an application and fee for the requested membership tier192 to either ITU-T or the “Administration of [the] Member State.”<= sup>193  Current membership includes 191 Member States194 and associates such as Apple Inc., AT&T, Inc., Microsoft Corporation, a= nd Sony Corporation.195  The ITU-T is further broken down i= nto a World Telecommunication Standardization Assembly, a Telecommunications Advi= sory Group, Study Groups, Focus Groups, and Regional and Flagship Groups,196 which provide a full calendar of meetin= gs throughout the year.197 Any ITU-T m= ember who registers may attend.198 

 

The Internet Architecture Board (“IAB”) is a thirteen-member committ= ee199 appointed by200 and situated within the Internet Engineering Task Force201 (“IETF”), for whom it manag= es “protocol parameter registries” and performs Internet Standards Process and architectural oversight.202 <= /sup> The committee meets via conference = call twice a month and in-person at the IETF meetings three times a year.203

  &nbs= p;            &= nbsp;       

The World Wide Web Consortium (“= W3C”) is an independent, industry-based consortium  focused on uniform Internet standa= rds and protocols,204 whose operations = are controlled by the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematic= s, and Keio University.205  Membership is open to any organiza= tion whose application206 (and membershi= p fee as calculated by location and annual revenues)207 is approved and who enters into an agreement with W3C.208 =  Current members include, among othe= rs, Adobe Systems, Inc., the Boeing Company, Chevron, Citigroup, Merck & Co= ., Inc., Stanford University, and Xerox Corporation.209  T= he W3C Advisory Committee (to which all member organizations appoint one representative)210 meets twice a ye= ar,211 while all “Working, Interest, and Coordination Groups” meet once a year.2= 12

 

The TLG does not hold meetings or attempt any central governing or policy-making mechanisms.213  Each year, one organization within = the TLG (through rotation)214 appoin= ts one non-voting liaison  to the ICA= NN Board215 and one voting delegate to= the ICANN Nominating Committee.216

 

T= he Internet Engineering Task Force (“IETF”) <= span style=3D'font-size:11.0pt'>is an independent organization focused on Intern= et architecture217 and creating and re= vising Internet standards.218  The organization is open to anyone= who wishes to take part, and, as most work is done through email groups,219 an interested individual need only subs= cribe to a particular listserv.220  Three meetings are held per year,<= sup>221 but interested individuals must first register and pay a fee (currently approx. $600-$750).222  Through the Internet Architecture Board,223 the IETF = appoints one IETF member224 as a non-voting liaison to the ICANN Board225 and o= ne as a voting member of the ICANN Nominating Committee.226

 

An Inconsistency?

 

The ICANN Bylaws appear to be inconsistent with respect to the number of GNSO Council members the constituencies may appoint. Article X governs the Gener= ic Names Supporting Organization.227 Pursuan= t to Section 3, Paragraph 1, “the GNSO Council shall consist of three representatives selected by= each of the Constituencies;”228 Se= ction 5, Paragraph 1 states that the “Constituencies . . . shall each selec= t two representatives to the GNSO Council.”229

 

While both Sections are subject to the terms of the Bylaw Transition Article (Art= icle XX),230 the matter is not resolved = there. The Generic Names Supporting Organization is discussed in Section 5,231 whose paragraph 4 provides that “[u]ntil the conclusion of the ICANN annual meeting in 2003, the GNSO Council shall consist of three representatives of each constituency.”2= 32 The same paragraph later states that “[t]hereafter, the composition of the GNSO Council shall be as provided in the . . . Bylaws,”233 putting the matter back into the contradictory provisions of Article X.234= Article XX, Section 5, Paragraph 8 adds further confusion by asserting that “[i]n the absence of further action on the topic by the New Board, ea= ch of the GNSO constituencies shall select two representatives to the GNSO Council.”235

 

            Some clarity (but only “some”) may be gleaned from each constituency= ’s governing documents and / or current practices, but discrepancies remain. T= hose discrepancies are as follows (all emphasis added for the purpose of this document):

 

GTLD Registrars Constituency: Paragraph 3.1.3 of the gTLD Registrars Constitue= ncy Bylaws provide for “[t]wo GNSO Council Representatives.”236 = However, the constituency’s page on the ICANN website lists three GNSO Council representatives currently serving.237

 

GTLD Registry Constituency<= /b>: Article VI, Section A of the gTLD Registries Articles of Operation detail how “[t]he two GNSO Council Representatives” are elected.238 Section C further provides for alternate election methods “[i]n the e= vent that the ICANN By-Laws, Article X, Section 5, are amended to allow three (3) representatives.”= 239  While Article X, Section 5, Paragraph 1 of the ICANN Bylaws still provides for the election of two representative= s,240 the constituency website currently list= s three GNSO Council representative= s currently serving.241

 

Internet Service and Connectivity Providers Constituency: The con= stituency website lists the names of the thr= ee GNSO Council representatives presently serving.242

 

Commercial and Business Users Constituency: Paragraph 4.1 of = the Commercial and Business Users Constituency’s charter states “[a= ]s specified in the ICANN by-laws, tw= o or three designated representatives . . . shall be elected by members as G= NSO Council representatives.”243 = The constituency’s website currently lists three = GNSO Council representatives serving.244<= /o:p>

 

Non-Commercial Users Constituency:= Pursuant to Article V, Section B of the Non-Comm= ercial Users Constituency’s Bylaws, the constituency’s Policy Committee “shall be co-chaired by the<= /b> two Constituency Representatives = to the GNSO Council.”245 The constit= uency website, however, currently lists = three GNSO Council Representatives serving.246=

 

Intellectual Property Constituency= : Pursuant to Article V, Section A, Paragraph 1 of= the Intellectual Property Constituency Bylaws, “[t]hree individuals shall represent the constituency on the GNSO Council,”247 and three such representatives are cu= rrently serving.248 

 

            In sum, three GNSO Council representatives are currently serving from each of the GNSO constituencies,= despite contradictions within the ICANN Bylaws and / or the constituency’s own governing documents.

 

 

 

FOOTNOTES

 

1 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 1<= /span>

2 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(e)

3 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 1<= /span>

4 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 3, Paragraph = 6

5 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 3, Paragraph = 1

6 = ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 3, Paragraph 2

7 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 3, Paragraph = 4

8 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(a)

9 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(b)

10 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 2, Paragraph 1(c)

11 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(d)

12 ICANN Bylaws, Article XIII, Section 2

13 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(e)

14 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 9, Paragraph = 1(a)

15 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(b)

16 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(c)

17 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 9, Paragraph = 1(d)

18 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(f)

19 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(a)

20 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 5<= /span>

21 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 2

22 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 6

23 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 8(f)

24 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 8(c)

25 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 7

26 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(b)

27 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 8(a)

28 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(e)

29 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(d)

30 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 8(h)

31 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(j)

32 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(i)

33 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 5

34 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 3

35 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 4

36 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 9=

37 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 4, Paragraph= 6

38 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 4, Paragraph= 1

39 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 4, Paragraph 5

40 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 4, Paragraph= 4

41 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 4, Paragraph 2

42 http://nomcom.icann.org/procedures-2007.html (Section B, Paragraph 6(a))

43 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Sec= tion 2, Paragraph 4(b)(ii)

44 ICANN Bylaws, Article IX, Sec= tion 3, Paragraph 1(b)

45 ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 3, Paragr= aph 1

46 http://nomcom.icann.org/procedures-2007.html (Section B, Paragraph 10)

47 ICANN Bylaws, Article VIII, Section 1, Paragrap= h 1

48 http://aso.icann.org/do= cs/aso-mou2004.html

49 http://www.nro.= net

50 http://www.nro.net/statistics/index.html

51 http://aso.icann.org/docs/aso-mou2004.html (Article 1)

52 ICANN Bylaws, Article VIII, Section 2, Paragrap= h 1

53 ICANN Bylaws, Article VIII, Section 2, Paragrap= h 1; http://aso.icann.org/do= cs/aso-mou2004.html (Article 3, Section a).

54 http://aso.ic= ann.org/about.html

55 http://aso.icann.org/meetings/index.html

56 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(b)

57 http://aso.icann.org/docs/bod-selection.html (Point 7.4.5)

58 Contained in ICANN Bylaws Article VI, Section 3=

59 http://aso.icann.org/docs/bod-selection.html (Point 7.3)

60 ICANN Bylaws Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph = 8(f)

61 ICANN Bylaws Article IX, Sect= ion 1

62 http:= //ccnso.icann.org/about/

63 http://ccnso.icann.org/applications/form.htm

64 http://ccnso.icann.org/applica= tions

65 http://ccnso.= icann.org/about/members.htm

66 http://ccnso.icann.org/meetings

67 http://ccnso.icann.org/meetings; http://www.icann.org/meetings/<= o:p>

68 ICANN Bylaws Article IX, Section 2

69 ICANN Bylaws Article IX, Sect= ion 3, Paragraph 1

70 ICANN Bylaws Article IX, Sect= ion 3, Paragraph 11

71 ICANN Bylaws Article IX, Section 3, Paragraph 9=

72 ICANN Bylaws Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph = 8(c)

73 ICANN Bylaws Article IX, Sect= ion 3, Paragraph 9

74 ICANN Bylaws Article X, Section 1

75 ICANN Bylaws Article X, Section 2

76 ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 3, Paragraph 1=

77 http://www.ic= ann.org/registrars/accreditation-process.htm

78 http:= //www.icann.org/registrars/accreditation-financials.htm

79 Id.

80 http://www.ic= ann.org/registrars/accreditation-process.htm

81 http:= //www.icann.org/registrars/accreditation-financials.htm

= 82= ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph 8(b)

83 http://www.gtldregistries.= org/about_us/

84 http://www.gtldreg= istries.org/about_us/articles (Article III)

85 http://www.gtld= registries.org/about_us/membership/

86 Id.

87 http://www.gt= ldregistries.org/events/

88 Id.

89 http://www.gtldreg= istries.org/about_us/articles (Article VI, Section A, Paragraphs 1 & 2)

90 ICANN Bylaws Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph = 8(a)

91 http://www.gtldreg= istries.org/about_us/articles (Article IV, Section B)

92 ht= tp://www.ispcp.info/about.html

93 http://www.ispcp.info/abt-memb.html

94 http://w= ww.dnso.org/constituency/ispcp/ISPCP.Members.html

95 http://www.ispcp.info/meetings.html

96 http://= www.dnso.org/constituency/ispcp/ISPCP.Articles.html

97 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(d)

98 http://www= .bizconst.org/ (Mission Statement tab)

99 http://www= .bizconst.org/ (Join Us tab)

100 http://www.bizconst.org/ (Join Us tab, open application form, it says about the mailing list at the bottom of the form)

101 http://bizcons= t.org/ (BC Members tab)

102 http://bizconst.org/ (ICANN Meetings tab)

103 http://bizconst.org/ (Telephone Conferences tab)

104 http://www= .bizconst.org/ (Charter tab, Section 4.1)

105 Id.

106 http://www.bizconst.org/ (Charter tab, Section 5.2)

107 http://www.bizconst.org/ (Charter tab, Section 5.3)

108 http://www= .bizconst.org/ (Charter tab, Section 5.5)

109 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 7)

110 http://www.ncdnhc.org/

111 http://www.ncdnhc.org/current_charter.htm (Article III, Section A)

112 http://www.ncdnhc.org/current_charter.htm (Article III, Section B)

113 http://www.ncdnhc.org/NCUC-Membership.txt

114 http://www.ncdnhc.org/members.ht= m

115 = http://www.ncdnhc.org/schedule.htm

116 http://www.ncdnhc.org/current_charter.htm (Article IV, Section B)

117 http://www.ncdnhc.org/cu= rrent_charter.htm (Article IV, Section F)

118 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(h)

119 http://www.ncdnhc.org/current_charter.htm (Article IV, Section F)

120 http://www.ipconstituency.org/index.htm

121 http://www.ipconstituency.org/join.htm

122 http://www.ipconstituency.org/bylaws.htm (Article II, Section A)

123 Applications are available at http://www.ipconstituency.o= rg/join.htm (fees are on each application)

124 http://www.ipconstitu= ency.org/membership.htm

125 http://www.ipconstituency.org/archives.htm

126 http://www.ipconstituency.org/bylaws.htm (Article V, Section A)

127 http://www.ipconstituency.org/bylaws.htm (Article VI, Section C)

128 http://www.ipconstituency= .org/bylaws.htm (Article III, Section B)

129 http://www.ipconstituency.org/bylaws.htm (Article III, Section A)

130 http://www.ip= constituency.org/join.htm

131 http://www.ipconstituency.org/bylaws.htm (Article III, Section A)

132 http://www.ipconstituency.org/join.= htm

133 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(e)

134 htt= p://gnso.icann.org/calendar/

135 ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 3, Paragraph 6=

136 = http://gnso.icann.org/elections/election-procedures-12mar07.shtml (Article F)

137 = http://gnso.icann.org/elections/election-procedures-12mar07.shtml (Article E)

138 http://www.icann.org/committ= ees/alac/

139 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Sec= tion 2, Paragraph 4(b)

140 Id.

141 http://st.icann.org/afralo/index.cgi; http://st.icann.org/asiap= ac/index.cgi; http://st.icann.org/euralo= /index.cgi; https://st.icann.org/lac= ralo/index.cgi; https://st.icann.org/nara= lo/index.cgi

142 http:/= /alac.icann.org/framework.htm#Proposedminimumcriteria=

143 Id.

144 Id.

145 https://st.icann.org/euralo/index.cgi?certified_at_large_structures

146 https://st.icann.org/afralo/index.cgi

147 https://st.ic= ann.org/euralo/index.cgi?previous_meetings

148 https://st.icann.org/asiapac/index.= cgi?meetings_and_events

149 Id.

150 https://= st.icann.org/euralo/index.cgi?meetings_and_events; http= s://st.icann.org/lacralo/index.cgi?meetings_and_events; https://st.icann.org/naralo/index.cgi?mee= tings_and_events

151 https:= //st.icann.org/afralo/index.cgi?icann_lisbon_meetings=

152 http://alac.ican.org/meetings/index-2007.htm

153 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(e)

154 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 6

155 ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Sect= ion 3, Paragraph 1

156 ICANN Bylaws, Article IX, Section 3, Paragraph = 2

157 http://www.alac.icann.org/frame_workwiki.htm (ALAC 2007 1.1Rev3 ALAC Internal Rules of Procedures link). Info is in Paragraph 5(j)

158 Id.

159 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(a)

160 http://gac= .icann.org/web/about/gac-outreach_English.htm

161 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(b)

162 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(e)

163 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Section 2, Paragraph = 1(b)

164 http://gac.icann.org/web/index.shtml (Operating Principles link) Article IV, Principle 17

165 http://gac.icann.org= /web/meetings/index.shtml

166 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(a)

167 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 5

168 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Sec= tion 2, Paragraph 3(a)

169 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Section 2, Paragraph = 3(b)

170 http://www.icann.org/committees/dns= -root/

171 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Section 9, Paragraph = 1(b)

172 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 3

173 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Sec= tion 2, Paragraph 2(a), 3(a)(1)-(2), (4)

174 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI, Sec= tion 2, Paragraph 2(a)(5)(b)

175 http://gac.icann.org/web/meetings/mtg15/RioPresentations/GACSli= des/sld005.htm

176 http://www.enterpriseitplanet.com/networking/news/article.php/3595341

177 ICANN Board, Article VI, Sect= ion 9, Paragraph 1(c)

178 ICANN Board, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph = 4

179 http://= public.icann.org/tig

180 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI-A, Section 2, Paragrap= h 3

181 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI-A, Section 2, Paragrap= h 2

182 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI-A, S= ection 2, Paragraph 6

183 Id.

184 htt= p://www.etsi.org/about_etsi/5_minutes/home.htm

185 http://www.etsi= .org/about_etsi/membership/home.htm

186 Id.

187 h= ttp://portal.etsi.org/Portal_IntegrateAppli/QueryForm.asp?Param=3D=

188 http://www.etsi= .org/about_etsi/membership/home.htm

189 http://www.etsi.= org/about_etsi/5_minutes/home.htm

190 http://www.itu.int/= ITU-T/membership/index.html

191 http://www.itu.= int/ITU-T/membership/join-itut.html

192 http://www.it= u.int/ITU-T/membership/join-sector.html; http://= www.itu.int/ITU-T/membership/join-associate.html

193 http:/= /www.itu.int/ITU-Tmembership/forms/form-sector-en.pdf; http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/membership/forms= /form-assoc-en.pdf

194 http://www.itu.int/members/index.html

195 http://www.itu.int/cgi-bin/htsh/mm/scripts/mm.lis= t?_search=3DASSOCIATES&_languageid=3D1

196 http://www.itu.int/= ITU-T/membership/index.html

197 http:/= /www.itu.int/events/upcomingevents.asp?sector=3DITU-T=

198 http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/events/ind= ex.phtml

199 http://www.iab.org/about/members.html

200 http://www.iab.org/about/description.html

201 http://www.iab.org/

202 Id.

203 http://www.iab.org/about/description.html

204 http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Overview

205 http:/= /www.w3.org/Consortium

206 http://www.w3= .org/Consortium/join

207 h= ttp://www.w3.org/Consortium/fees

208 h= ttp://www.w3.org/Consortium/join

209 http://www.w3.org/Consortium/Member/List

210 http://www.w3.org/2005/= 03/Member-Agreement

211 http://www.w3.org/Consortium/meetings

212 Id.

213 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI-A, S= ection 2, Paragraph 4

214 ICANN Bylaws, Article XI-A, S= ection 2, Paragraph 7

215 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(d)

216 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Section 2, Paragraph= 8(j)

217 h= ttp://www.ietf.org/overview.html

218 http:/= /www.ietf.org/tao.html (Section 3)

219 http://www.ietf.org/overview.htm= l

220 https://www1.ietf.= org/mailman/listinfo/tsv-area

221 http://www.ietf.org/tao.html (Sec= tion 4)

222 http://www.ietf.org/= meetings/69-reg_form.html

223 http://www.iab.org/about= /description.html (stating “when the IETF establishes liaisons to other bodies, the IAB= is responsible for selection the liaisons”).

224 http://www.iab.org/about/charter.html

225 ICANN Bylaws, Article VI, Sec= tion 9, Paragraph 1(f)

226 ICANN Bylaws, Article VII, Se= ction 2, Paragraph 8(i)

227 ICANN Bylaws, Article X

228  ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 3, Paragraph 1

229  ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 5, Paragraph 1

230  See ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 3, Paragraph 1 & ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 5, Paragraph 1

231 ICANN Bylaws, Article XX, Section 5<= /span>

232 ICANN Bylaws, Article XX, Section 5, Paragraph = 4

233 Id.

234 See ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 3, Paragra= ph 1 & ICANN Bylaws, Article X, Section 5, Paragraph 1

235 ICANN Bylaws Article XX, Section 5, Paragraph 8=

236  http://icannregistrars.org/RC_Bylaws

237 http://gnso.icann.org/registr= ars/

238 http://www.gtldregistries.org/about_us/articles=

239 Id.

240 ICANN Bylaws Article X, Section 5, Paragraph 1<= o:p>

241 http://www.gtldregistries.org/about_us/

242 http://www.ispcp.info/abt-gnso.html<= /span>

243 http://www= .bizconst.org/ (Charter tab on left-hand side)

244 http://www= .bizconst.org/ (Responsibilities tab on left-hand side)

245 http://www.ncdnhc.org/current_charter.htm (Article V, Section B)

246 h= ttp://www.ncdnhc.org/members.htm

247 http://www.ipconstituency.org/bylaws.htm

248 http://www.ipconstituency.org/officers.htm=

 

 

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