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Criminal Justice

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Equal Justice for People with Developmental Disabilities

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Listed below are resources for family members and professionals seeking additional information on the topics of the criminal justice system and sexuality.

Articles and Journals

Please note: Where possible, we have included a link to download the article or to a site where the article is maintained. All scanned articles are PDF documents. Adobe Reader is required for PDFs - get Adobe reader for PDF get Adobe Reader for PDF

To find the remaining articles, the source MUST be contacted directly. The Institute is unable to fulfill requests for these articles.

NEW RESOURCES - Disability and Sexual Orientation

  • Abbot, D. & Howarth, J. (2007). Still off limits? Staff Views on Supporting Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual People with Intellectual Disabilities to Develop Sexual and Intimate Relationships? Journal of Applies Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20, 116-126.
  • Bedard, C., Zhang, H. & Zucker, J. (September 2010). Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in People with Developmental Disabilities. Sexuality and Disability, 28(3), 165-175.
  • Bennett, C. & Coyle, A. (2008). A Minority Within a Minority: Experiences of Gay Men with Intellectual Disabilities. In V.C. Clarke (Ed.) & E. Peel (Ed), Out in Psychology of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Queer Perspectives (pp. 125 - 145). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Burns, J. & Davies, D. (2011). Same-Sex Relationships and Women with Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 24(4), 351- 360. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-3148.2010.00609.x
  • Cook, J. (2000). Sexuality and People with Psychiatric Disabilities. Sexuality and Disability, 18(3), 195 - 206.
  • Georgina Parkes, Ian Hall, and Steven J. Taylor (2006) Gender Dysphoria and Cross Dressing in People With Intellectual Disability: A Literature Review. Mental Retardation: August 2006, Vol. 44, No. 4, pp. 260-271. ([260:GDACIP]2.0.CO;2
  • Haraldsen, I. & Dahl, A. (October 2000). Symptom profiles of gender dysphoric patients of transsexual tpe compared to patients with perseonality disoerders and healthy adults. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102(4), 276-281. DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.102004276.x
  • Kijak, R. (Mar 2011). A Desire for Love: Considerations on Sexuality and Sexual Education of People with Intellectual Disability in Poland. Sexuality and Disability, 29(1), 65-74
  • Martenson, L. (2009). The Invisibility of Young Homosexual Women and Men with Intellectual Disabilities. Sexuality and Disability, 27(1), 21-26.
  • Stoffelen, J., Kok, G., Hosper, H., & Curfs, L.M.G. (2013). Homosexuality among people with a mild intellectual disability: an explorative study on the lived experiences of homosexual people in the Netherlands with a mild intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(3), 257-267.
  • Aiello, Denise & Capkin, Lee "Services for Disabled Victims: Elements and Standards", pgs 14-16, 1-4 Response, Fall 1984
  • Arrayan, Kari "Disability Justice Initiative Technical Report #1: Review of the Literature" ND Center for Persons with Disabilities, November 2003, pgs 1-17 Scanned Article - Arrayan 1
  • Arrayan, Kari "Disability Justice Initiative Technical Report #2: State-wide Survey Analysis" ND Center for Persons with Disabilities, November 2003, pgs 1-39 Scanned Article - Arrayan 2
  • Baladerian, Nora J. "Children and Adults with Developmental Disabilities: Maltreatment Update" Mental Health Consultants, pgs 1-22 Scanned Article - Nora 1
  • Baladerian, Nora J. "Quick Reference Sheet on: Interviewing Abuse Victims who have Cognitive or Communicative Impairments" Disability, Abuse and Personal Rights, a project of Spectrum Institute, pgs 1-5 Scanned Article - Nora 2
  • Baladerian, Nora J. & Waxman, Barbara Faye "Rape Treatment Recommendations for Disabled People" July 1985, pgs 1-24 Scanned Article - Nora 3
  • Barile, Maria "Individual-Systemic Violence: Disabled Women's Standpoint" Journal of International Women's Studies, November 2002, Volume 4, Number 1, pgs 1-14] >
  • Belden, Barbara; Burke, Amber & Visitacion, Connie "Evaluation of the Victims Assistance Program" Joint Center on Violence and Victim Studies, 2001, pgs 1-15 Printed on 2/22/02
  • Bryen, Diane Nelson, Allison Carey & Beverly Frantz (2003, June). Ending the Silence: Adults who Use Augmentative Communication and their Experiences as Victims of Crimes. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 19(2), 125-134.
  • Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.; Ahrens, Courtney E.; Sefl, Tracy & Barnes, Holly E. "Preventing the 'Second Rape' - Rape Survivors' Experiences with Community Service Providers" Journal of Interpersonal Violence, December 2001, Volume 16, Number 12, pgs 1239-1259
  • Casteel,C.,Martin,SL., Smith,JB., Gurka,KK., Kupper,LL., "National Study of Physical and Sexual Assault Among Women with Disabilities", Injury Prevention 2008; 14: 87-90
  • Chenoweth, Lesley "Violence and Women with Disabilities, Silence and Paradox" Chapter 2, pgs 21-39
  • Cole, Sandra S. "Facing the Challenges of Sexual Abuse in Persons with Disabilities" Sexuality and Disability, Fall/Winter 1984-86, Volume 7, Number 3/4, pgs 71-88
  • Coles, Walter "Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Law Enforcement Perspective" Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 1990, Volume 18, Number 2, pgs 35-43
  • Curry, Mary Ann; Powers, Laurie E. & Oschwald, Mary "Development of an Abuse Screening Tool for Women with Disabilities" Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, Volume 8, Issue 4, pgs 1-21 Scanned Article - Curry 1
  • Davis, Leigh Ann & Schwartz, Michelle "Telling the Truth Regardless of the Risk - One Group Home's Response to Staff Abuse of Residents" The Arc, 2002, Issue #1, pgs 18-24 Scanned Article - Davis 1
  • Davis, Leigh Ann "People with Cognitive, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities & Sexual Offenses" (Q&A) The Arc, July 2002, pgs 1-2 Scanned Article - Davis 2
  • Davis, Leigh Ann "People with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexual Violence" (Q&A) The Arc, August 2005, pgs 1-2 Scanned Article - Davis 3
  • Davis, Leigh Ann "People with Intellectual Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System: Victims & Suspects" (Q&A) The Arc, June 2005, pgs 1-2 Scanned Article - Davis 4
  • Davis, Leigh Ann "The Criminal Justice Response to Victims with Developmental Disabilities: Utilizing Effective ADA Accommodations" Presented to: The National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council for the Workshop of Victims with Disabilities October 8, 1999, pgs 1-33 Scanned Article - Davis 5
  • Delaware County Women's Commission "Violence Against Women with Disabilities" June 2005, pgs 1-20
  • Doren, Bonnie; Bullis, Michael & Benz, Michael "Predictors of Victimization Experiences of Adolescents with Disabilities in Transition" The Council for Exceptional Children Exceptional Children, 1996, Volume 62, Number 1, pgs 7-18
  • Edwards, William J. "How to Demystify the Prosecutions Efforts of Minimizing the Severity of Your Clients Mental Retardation" Pgs 1-5
  • Elman, R. Amy "Confronting the Sexual Abuse of Women with Disabilities" January 2005, pgs 1-16 Printed on 09/02/2005
  • Erickson, Stephanie "Abuse of Disabled: A mostly ignored epidemic" Sentinel, May 24, 2003, pgs 1-4 Printed from email on 05/27/2003
  • Fitzsimons,N.,Sobsey,D., "Combating Violence and Abuse of People with Disabilities: A Call to Action" , Editor, Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., 1st Edition, February , 2009, ISBN: 9781598570014, 220 pages
  • Fox, Ronald (2004). Bisexuality: A Reader's Guide to the Social Science Literature. Journal of Bisexuality, 4(1-2), 161-255.
  • Furey, Eileen M. "Sexual Abuse of Adults with Mental Retardation: Who and Where" Mental Retardation, June 1994, Volume 32, Number 3, pgs 173-180
  • Gilgun, Jane F "CASPARS: New tools for assessing client risks and strengths" Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, September 1, 1999 Volume 80, Issue 5, pgs 1-11 Printed on 09/07/2006
  • Greenspan, Stephen (2011). Homicide Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities: Issues in Diagnosis in Capital Cases. Exceptionality, 19, 219-237.
  • Guidry Tyiska, Cheryl "An American Advocate's Perspective: Responding to Disabled Victims of Crime" NOVA Newsletter, 1990, Issue Numbers 8-12, pgs 10-13
  • Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena & Curry, Mary Ann "Abuse of Women with Disabilities: State of the Science" RCB, 2002, Volume 45, Issue 2, pgs 96-104 Scanned Article - Curry 2
  • Hickson,L.,Khemka,I.,Golden,H.,Chatzistyli,A., "Profiles of Women Who Have Mental Retardation with and without a Documented History of Abuse", American Journal on Mental Retardation, Volume 113, Number 2: 133-142
  • Jema,L., Fugl-Meyer,KS.,Oberg,K., "On Intimacy, Sexual Activities and Exposures to Sexual Abuse among Children and Adolescents with Mobility Impairment", Foundation Acta Paediatricia 2008 97 pp. 641-646
  • Keilty, Jennifer & Connelly Georgina "Making a Statement: an exploratory study of barriers facing women with an intellectual disability when making a statement about sexual assault to police" Disability & Society, 2001, Volume 16, Number 2, pgs 273-291
  • Khemka, Ishita & Hickson, Linda "Decision-Making by Adults with Mental Retardation in Simulated Situations of Abuse" Mental Retardation, February 2000, Volume 38, Number 1, pgs 15-26
  • Kit-Shan Lee, Yvonne & So-Kum Tang, Catherine "Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Female Chinese Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation" American Journal on Mental Retardation, 1998, Volume 103, Number 2, pgs 105-116
  • Longo, Robert E. & Gochenour, Claude "Sexual Assault of Handicapped Individuals" Journal of Rehabilitation, July/August/September 1981, pgs 24-27
  • Mansell, Sheila; Sobsey, Dick & Moskal, Rosemary "Clinical Findings among Sexually Abused Children with and without Developmental Disabilities" Mental Retardation, February 1998, Volume 36, Number 1, pgs 12-22
  • Mansell, Sheila; Sobsey, Dick & Calder, Peter "Sexual Abuse Treatment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities" Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 1992, Volume 23, Number 5, pgs 404-409 Scanned Article - Sobsey 1
  • McAfee, James A. "Individuals with Significant Disabilities who are Victims of Crime" TASH Newsletter, September 1998, pgs 21-25
  • McCleary, Richard & Wiebe, Douglas J. "Measuring the Victimization Risk of the Developmentally Disabled: Methodological Problems and Solutions" Pgs 1-29
  • McFarlane, Judith; Hughes, Rosemary; Nosek, Margaret A.; Groff, Janet Y.; Swedlend, Nancy & Mullen, Patricia Dolan "Abuse Assessment Screen-Disability (AAS-D): Measuring Frequency, Type and Perpetrator of Abuse toward Women with Physical Disabilities" Journal of Women's Health & Gender Based Medicine, November 2001, Volume 10, Number 9, pgs 861-866
  • McGrath,R.,Livingston,J.,Falk,G., "Community Management of Sex Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities: Characteristics, Services, and Outcome of a Statewide Program", Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Volume 45, Number 6, 391-398, December 2007
  • Merkin, Lewis & Smith, Marilyn J. "A Community Based Model Providing Services for Deaf and Deaf-Blind Victims of Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence" Sexuality & Disability, 1995, Volume 13, Number 2, pgs 97-106
  • Miller, Carol Marbin "Florida Cases Underscore Risk of Sexual Abuse for the Disabled" The Herald, 6/8/2003, Front Section, pg 1A Acquired via email from Bev Frantz Printed on 7/1/03
  • Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.; Ellingson, Sherry; Galensky, Tami; Rapp, John T.; Long, Ethan S. & Lumley, Vicki A. "Training and Generalization of Sexual Abuse Prevention Skills for Women with Mental Retardation" Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Fall 1999, Volume 32, Number 3, pgs 385-388
  • Modell,S.,Cropp,D.,Police Officers and Disability: Perceptions and Attitudes, Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Volume 45, Number 1; 60-63, February 2007
  • Muller, John (2009). The New Parenthood and the Old Ambivalence About Disability: Baby Doe, Prenatal Testing, and Disability Rights. Student Prize Papers Yale Law School, Paper 44.
  • Murphy, Patricia "Taking an Abuse History in the Initial Evaluation" NARPPS Journal & News, Volume 7, Number 5, pgs 187-191
  • National Ethic Disability Alliance (NEDA) "Domestic Violence & Women from a NESB with Disability" December 2001/NEDA 2001, pgs 1-6
  • Nixon,J., "Domestic violence and women with disabilities: Locating the issue on the periphery of social movements", Disability & Society, Volume 24, No.1, January 2009, 77-89
  • Nosek, Margaret A. & Howland, Carol "Sexual Abuse & People with Disabilities" Sexual Function in People with Disability and Chronic Illness Chapter 28, pgs 577-594
  • Nosek, Margaret A. & Howland, Carol A. "Abuse and Women with Disabilities", pgs 1-8 Violence Against Women Online Resources Printed on 6/19/00
  • O'Reilly,M.,"'I didn't punch him': Parental accounts of punishing children with mental health problems", The Journal of Family Therapy, 2008, 30: 272-295
  • Paceley, Shirley "Reducing Risk of Sexual Abuse of Persons with Developmental Disabilities" Pgs 1-14
  • Perske,R., "Coming Out of the Darkness: America's Criminal Justice System and Persons With Intellectual Disabilities in the 20th Century", Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Volume 45, Number 3: 216-220, June 2007
  • Pitonyak, David "Supporting a Person who is Experiencing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)" Pgs 1-26 Scanned Article - Pitonyak
  • Powers, Laurie E, Mary Ann Curry, Elizabeth McNeff, Marsha Saxton, Jennifer Powers & Mary Oschwald (2008). End the Silence: A Survey of Abuse Against Men with Disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 74(4), 41-53.
  • Powers, Laurie E. & Oschwald, Mary "Violence and Abuse Against People with Disabilities: Experiences, Barriers and Prevention Strategies" Pgs 1-20 Scanned Article - Powers & Oschwald
  • Reynolds, Leigh Ann "People with Mental Retardation & Sexual Abuse" (Q&A) The Arc, October 1997
  • Robinson Civjan, Sherly "Making Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Services Accessible" Impact, pgs 1-4
  • Samuels, Robert "Crime & Disability: Assessing the Risk" New Mobility, November/December 1994, pgs 26-31
  • Saxton, Marsha; Curry, Mary Ann; Powers, Laurie E.; Maley, Susan; Eckels, Karyl & Gross, Jacqueline "Bring My Scooter So I Can Leave You - A Study of Disabled Women handling Abuse by Personal Assistance Providers" Violence Against Women, April 2001, Volume 7, Number 4, pgs 393-417
  • Shakeshaft, Charol "Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature" Policy and Program Studies Service (PPSS), 2004, U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary DOC # 2004-09, pgs 1-8
  • Sherry, Mark "Hate Crimes against People with Disabilities" Women with Disabilities Australia (WWDA), pgs 1-7 Printed on 7/26/00
  • Sieblink,E.,de Jong,M., Taal,E.,Roelvink,L., "Sexuality and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, Experiences, and Needs", Mental Retardation, Volume 44, Number 4: 282-294, August 2006
  • Smith,D., "Disability, Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Relationships from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System", Sex. Disabil. (2008) 26:15-28,
  • Smith,D., Stausser,DR., "Examining the Impact of physical and sexual abuse on the employment of women with disabilities in the United States: An exploratory analysis", Disability and Rehabilitation, 30: 14, 1039-1046
  • Sobsey, Dick & Varnhagen, Connie "Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Disabled Individuals" Child Sexual Abuse Chapter 11, pgs 203-216 Scanned Article - Sobsey 2
  • Sobsey, Dick "Violence & Disability: Theory & Practice" Powerpoint Presentation & Handouts, pgs 1-14 Scanned Article - Sobsey 3
  • Sobsey, Dick & Mansell, Sheila "The Prevention of Sexual Abuse of People with Developmental Disabilities" Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 1990, Volume 18, Number 2, pgs 51-66
  • Sobsey, Dick & Varnhagen, Connie "Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Disabled Individuals" Child Sexual Abuse Chapter 11, pgs 203-216 Same as Scanned Article - Sobsey 2
  • Stop It Now! Philadelphia "Baseline Evaluation in Philadelphia: Findings Reveal that Adults need for skills to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse" Stop It Now! Report #7, November 2002, pgs 1-4
  • Taylor,J.,Eitle,D.,Russell,D., "Racial/Ethnic variation in the relationship between physical limitation and fear of crime: an examination of mediating and moderating factors", Deviant Behavior, 30: 144-174, 2009
  • Ternes,M.,Yuille,J., "Eyewitness Memory and Eyewitness Identification Performance in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities", Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21, 519-531
  • Thiara, Ravi. (2011, October). Losing out on both counts: disabled women and domestic violence. Disability and Society, 26(6), 757-771.
  • Vaughn,J, Taylor,M, Parrish,S., "Are We There Yet? Screening Process for Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Jail Settings", Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Volume 47, Number 1: 13-23, February 2009
  • Wade, Holly Anne "Discrimination, Sexuality and People with Significant Disabilities: Issues of Access and the Right to Sexual Expression in the United States" Disability Studies Quarterly, Fall 2002, Volume 22, Number 4, pgs 9-27
  • Waxman, Barbara Faye "Hatred: The Unacknowledged Dimension in Violence against Disabled People" Sexuality and Disability, 1991, Volume 9, Number 3, pgs 185-199
  • Wisseman, Kimberly Black "You're My Pretty Bird in a Cage": Disability, Domestic Violence and Survival Impact, Fall 2000, Volume 13, Number 13
  • Womendez, Chris & Schneiderman, Karen "Escaping from Abuse: Unique Issues for Women with Disabilities" Sexuality and Disability, 1991, Volume 9, Number 3, pgs 273-279
  • Wuest,J., Merrit-Gray,M.,Ford-Gilboe,M.,Lent,B.,Varcoe,C.,Campbell,J., "Chronic Pain in Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence", The Journal of Pain, Volume 9, Number 11, 2008: pp-1049-1057
  • Young,E., Heath,M.,Ashbaker,B.,Smith,B.,"Sexual Harrassment Among Students with Educational Disabilities", Remedial and Special Education, Volume 29, Number 4, August 2008, 208-221

Other Resources

Pennsylvania Developmental Disability Council

Harrisburg Office
Room 561 Forum Building
605 South Drive
Harrisburg, PA 17120
Telephone: 717-787-6057 (voice)
717-705-0819 (TTY)
Toll Free: 1-877-685-4452

This resource list was funded by the Pennsylvania Developmental Disability Council, envisioning a Commonwealth comprised of inclusive communities where all people with disabilities are valued and thrive.

National Sexual Violence Resource Center

123 North Enola Drive
Enola, PA 17025
Telephone: 717-909-0710
717-909-0715 (TTY)
Toll Free: 877-739-3895
Fax: 717-909-0714

The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) opened in July 2000 as a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. Founded by the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Rape, the oldest and one of the largest state sexual assault coalitions, the NSVRC is funded through a cooperative agreement from the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention.

The National Center for Victims of Crime

2000 M Street NW, Suite 480
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: 202-467-8700
Fax: 202-467-8701

The National Center for Victims of Crime is the nation's leading resource and advocacy organization for crime victims and those who serve them. Since its inception in 1985, the National Center has worked with grassroots organizations and criminal justice agencies throughout the United States serving millions of crime victims.

The Arc

1660 L Street, NW, Suite 301
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: 202-534-3700
Toll Free: 800-433-5255
Fax: 202-534-3731

The Arc promotes and protects the human rights of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and actively supports their full inclusion and participation in the community throughout their lifetimes.

Disability Rights Wisconsin

131 W. Wilson Street, Suite 700
Madison, WI 53703
Telephone: 608-267-0214
TTY: 888-758-6049
Toll Free: 800-928-8778

Disability Rights Wisconsin, in collaboration with the Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence and the Wisconsin Coalition Against Sexual Assault, produced several handbooks that address the service needs of persons with disabilities. All handbooks are accessible from the website: Cross Training Workbook: Violence Against Women with Disabilities; Accessibility Guide for Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Providers; Accessibility Guide for Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Service Providers; Confidentiality of Information and Records: A guide for programs Working with Women with Disabilities who are Survivors of Sexual Assault; Victim/ Survivors who use Service Animals: A Background Paper and Sample Program Policy for Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault Programs; and Self Assessment Tool for Ensuring Access for People with Disabilities.

Male Survivor

(Overcoming Sexual Victimization of Boys & Men)

Website gives many support resources for males survivors of rape and sexual assault. There is a very active discussion board for survivors to talk, share experiences and resources. The site contains a large bibliography and education information for professionals and survivors.

Seeds Educational Services Inc.

2707 Congress Street 1-R
San Diego, California 92110
Telephone: 619 299-3161
Fax# 619-299-0148

Seeds is a non-profit organization that was established to help people with developmental disabilities. Seeds grew out of the large number of sexual abuse cases involving adults and children. The agency offers curriculum and training for professionals , disability support workers, persons with disabilities and their families. Other curriculum and training: abuse investigation, a curriculum development series, public speaking and outreach, assertiveness and social awareness.


A community of disabled people who work together to campaign for acceptance of disabled people as sexual partners, social network, community resources, large bibliography and site for "Inside" magazine- periodical of articles and news from the United Kingdom disability community.

Public Health Family Planning Program

Seattle & King County
F.L.A.S.H. (Family Life and Sexual Health) Lesson Plans
401 5th Ave., Suite 1300
Seattle, WA 98104
TTY Relay: 711
Toll Free: 800-325-6165

The F.L.A.S.H curriculum is a sexual education course for schools created by the Seattle, Washington, Office of Public Health. The curriculum is used in school districts across the United States and Canada. F.L.A.S.H consists of lesson plans and transparencies for grades 4 through 12 and, lesson plans and curriculum for special education students and young adults.

Direct Care Alliance, Inc.

4 West 43rd Street, 5th Floor
Room 505-507
New York, NY 10036

Provides support and training information to caregivers. Provides resources for caregivers and caregiver concerns.

North Dakota Center for Persons with Disabilities

500 University Ave. West
Minot, North Dakota 58707
1 (800) 233-1737

Provides information, resources and training modules for anyone interested in learning about supporting persons with disabilities.

Institute on Community Integration

109 Pattee Hall 150 Pillsbury Drive SE
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN 55455

Impact newsletter published by The Institute on Community Integration, Volume 13, Fall 2000 feature issue: "Violence and Women with Developmental or Other Disabilities." Understanding Caregiver Abuse as Domestic Violence: Systemic Change in Wisconsin, Mandeville,Howard and Hanson,Maria, pp.14-15,27 PDF link: