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10.1 – Hearing Conservation Program

Purpose:

In accordance with Temple University policy and all applicable local, state, and federal regulations, to provide a safe and healthful workplace environment for its employees, students, and visitors. In order to ensure this policy, the University has established a Hearing Conservation Program. This program is in compliance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Occupational Noise Exposure Standard, 29 CFR 1910.95.

Scope:

This program applies to all persons working in areas or with equipment that have noise levels of 85-decibels, A-weighting (dBA), or higher.

Regulatory Requirements:

The standards set forth in this program for preventing occupational hearing loss are based on 29 CFR 1910.95, the Threshold Limit Values (TLV) established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), and the National Institutes of Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH) latest guidance documents. The guidance provided for controlling "annoying" noise is based on best management practice and therefore is not mandatory.

Responsibilities:

Department

  • Post copy of OSHA Occupational Noise Exposure regulation (29 CFR 1910.95)
  • Request noise monitoring from the Environmental Health and Safety Department (EHRS) where high noise exposures are suspected or anticipated.
  • Notify the EHRS when new noise sources are introduced
  • Minimize noise using engineering controls
  • Offer a variety of hearing protectors

Supervisor

  • Request noise monitoring from the EHRS where high noise exposures are suspected or anticipated.
  • Post signs or stickers on high noise areas
  • Ensure workers wear hearing protection in high noise areas
  • Ensure workers receive training and audiograms

Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department

  • Conduct monitoring and offer training upon department request
  • Advise on noise reduction through administrative or engineering controls
  • Recommend appropriate hearing protectors
  • Audit departmental program periodically

Personnel

  • Attend Hearing Conservation training offered by the EHRS
  • Receive audiometric testing
  • Wear appropriate hearing protection when needed at work and minimize noise exposure outside of work

Noise Exposures:

Exposure to transient noise louder than 85-dBA is permitted, as long as the average exposure for the entire day is less than 85-dBA. For most practical purposes, exposure to noise above 115-dBA for any length of time is not permitted unless hearing protection is worn. The maximum exposure limit for impulse noise is 140-dB (unweighted or C-weighted).

Speech Interference and Annoying Noise:

In some cases noise does not exceed standards established to protect hearing, but does interfere with speech or can cause annoyance. For example, nuisance noise can prevent effective communication between two or more employees working together as well as irritate employees, thereby reducing productivity. Although there are no mandatory standards for nuisance noise in the occupational setting, the guidelines and recommendations available should be followed to protect employees from exposure to this type of noise.

Most of the information conveyed through speech is in the mid-frequencies – from about 500 to 2000 Hertz. Thus, these are the frequencies that are used to determine how noise will interfere with speech. Noise levels above 60-dB make telephone conversation difficult. A level below 50-dB is desirable in a typical conference room; those above 70-dB often present a problem in such settings.

Noise may be annoying because of its level, frequency, or aspects of its modulation. A noise may not be very loud, but its frequency may be high enough to cause headaches in susceptible individuals. Alternatively, a noise may not be that loud but may start and stop suddenly. This can disturb concentration or frighten exposed personnel. Because there are no guidelines for annoying noise, each case must be examined independently to attempt to alleviate the irritation.

Noise Exposure Away from Work

Employees should understand that exposure to loud noises while away from the job might also lead to permanent hearing problems. Exposures to higher noise levels can be found in the home, while commuting, or while participating in recreational or artistic activities.

Employees should become aware of their non-occupational exposures and consider options to protect themselves. Clearly, reducing the volume on televisions and radios controls noise exposure. Musicians, for whom hearing loss is a real hazard, have begun wearing hearing protection to preserve their hearing. The solutions vary from controlling the volume, to maintaining distance from the noise source, using sound-absorbing materials around the noise source, reducing the duration of exposure, or wearing hearing protection. Many resources on this topic are available at your public library and on the Internet, or contact the EHRS for information.

Noise Monitoring:

It is the responsibility of the departments to notify the EHRS when there is a possible need for monitoring.

The EHRS will conduct monitoring for noise exposure levels. Monitoring will also be conducted whenever there is a change in equipment, process, or controls that affects the noise levels. This includes the addition or removal of machinery, alteration in building structure or substitution of new equipment in place of that previously used. Monitoring will be performed with the use of sound level meters and personal dosimeters at the discretion of the EHRS.

Noise Control Measures:

Responsibility

It is the responsibility of the department to provide employees with appropriate hearing protection, as determined by the EHRS. It is the responsibility of the department to require employees wear hearing protection when noise levels reach or exceed 85-dBA.

Engineering Controls

Noise reduction may be accomplished with engineering controls such as enclosing or altering noisy equipment. Sound absorbing materials, which usually absorb 70% or more of the sound that strikes them, may be placed above or around noisy equipment or work areas.

When engineering controls are not enough to reduce exposure to acceptable levels, hearing protectors may be worn. Hearing protectors act as barriers to reduce sound entering the ear.

Personal Protective Equipment

The department will provide hearing protection to the following employees:

  • Employees in a probable high noise area who have not yet received a baseline audiogram,
  • Employees who have incurred standard threshold shifts since these workers have demonstrated that they are susceptible to noise,
  • Employees exposed over the permissible exposure limit of 85-dB over an 8-hour TWA (Time-Weighted Average).

The department will provide hearing protection to employees who perform tasks designated as having a high noise exposure. The department will replace the hearing protection as necessary. The EHRS will determine which type of hearing protection device should be used. Hearing protectors will be derated by subtracting from the NRR 25%, 50% and 70% for earmuffs, formable earplugs, and all other earplugs, respectively.

Employee Training:

Employees who are exposed to noise exceeding the 8-hour time-weighted average

(85-dBA) or the peak (140-dB) must receive Hearing Conservation training. This course is offered by the EHRS and covers the following:

  • The effects of noise on hearing.
  • When and/or where hearing protectors are required.
  • The purpose of hearing protectors.
  • The advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various types of protectors.
  • Instructions on how to select, use, fit, and care for hearing protectors.
  • The purpose of audiometric testing, including an explanation of the test procedures.
  • Follow-up annual retraining shall be provided the EHRS at the time of annual audiometric testing.

Audiograms/Hearing Test:

Employees included in the hearing conservation program who have time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85-dBA or greater for an eight (8) hour work shift will be required to have both a baseline and annual audiogram. High noise exposure must be avoided for 14 hours prior to an exam.

The audiogram will be provided by the department and conducted by the Audiology Department in Temple University Hospital at no cost to the employee. The audiometric test record must include name and job classification of the employee; date of the audiogram; examiner's name; date of the last calibration of the audiometer; and the employee's most recent noise monitoring test.

The baseline audiogram will be given to an employee working in a recognized high noise area or with recognized high noise sources (as defined by the EHRS) within one (1) month of employment with the Temple University and before any exposure to high noise levels. Annual audiograms will be performed within one year from the date of the previous audiogram. If an annual audiogram shows that an employee has suffered a standard threshold shift, the employee will be retested within thirty (30) days of the original audiogram. Employees who do experience a standard threshold shift will also be refitted with hearing protection and provided more training on the effects of noise. If the retest confirms the occurrence of a standard threshold shift, the employee will be notified in writing within twenty-one (21) days of the confirmation.

It is the responsibility of the individual and their respective departments to schedule the annual audiogram.

Signage/Labeling:

Signage is required in areas where the EHRS requires hearing protection.

Noise Standard:

A copy of the Occupational Noise Exposure Standard (29 CFR 1910.95) will be made available to employees.

Record-Keeping:

Supervisors and EHRS shall maintain an accurate record of all employees' noise level testing results for two years.

Audiology will maintain audiometric test results until workers leave the University's employ.

10.2 – Ergonomics Program

In accordance to local, state, and federal regulations is the policy of Temple University to provide a safe and healthful workplace environment for its employees, students, and visitors. In order to ensure this policy, the University has established an Ergonomics Program.

The Temple University Ergonomics Program establishes responsibility and protocol for the identification and control of workplace ergonomics hazards at Temple University.

Compliance with the Temple University Ergonomics Program includes hazard evaluation, designation of specific responsibilities, and ergonomics training.

Scope:

This program covers all employees whose jobs involve manufacturing, manual material handling, and all employees who work in the same job as an employee who has reported a work related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD).

10.3 – Confined Space Program

The purpose of this program is to prevent injury or illness to employees who must enter a confined space, such as vaults, pits, tanks, vessels, storage bins, hoppers, and manholes. The program trains employees to recognize confined spaces with potentially serious hazards, called permit-required confined spaces, and teaches them actions necessary to protect themselves. Departments are responsible for implementing and maintaining their own permit-required confined space entry program, aimed at permit-required confined spaces. A confined space entry occurs any time a body part breaks the plane of the entrance.

A confined space has these characteristics:

  • It is large enough to allow an employee to enter and perform work.
  • It has limited or restricted means for entry or exit.
  • It is not designed for continuous human occupancy.

OSHA regulations require a permit-required confined space entry program be developed and implemented by employers with employees who may be required to enter a confined space containing a permit-required hazard.

A permit-required confined space has one or more of the following characteristics:

  • contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere
  • contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant
  • has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section
  • contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard

Examples of potential hazards in permit-required confined spaces include: flammable concentrations of gases or fumes (e.g., methane), highly toxic concentrations of chemicals (e.g., carbon monoxide, xylene), cleaning with volatile solvents, welding on stainless steel, presence of loose materials like sawdust or grain, containers with mixer/stirrers in them, and steam tunnels.

Program Elements
Permit-required confined space entry programs must specifically address the hazards and needs of individual departments. A generic, non-specific program is not acceptable.

1. Written Program
Each department with employees entering confined spaces must have a written program specifically explaining how their program functions. The program must be maintained and modified to remain current.

The program must address:

  • identification of confined spaces
  • procedures to evaluate each confined space to be entered for permit-required hazards, including hazard created by operations to be performed in the space
  • procedures to determine the method to be used to enter each permit-required confined space, based on the ability to eliminate or control the permit hazards in the space
  • assignment of authority for supervising entry into permit-required confined spaces
  • procedures to eliminate or control hazards identified in permit-required confined spaces (lockout/tagout, purging, inerting, ventilating, flushing)
  • appropriate testing and monitoring of conditions inside permit-required confined spaces (toxic/flammable gas, oxygen deficiency)
  • personal protective and communication equipment to be used during entry
  • system for preparing, issuing, using, and canceling appropriate entry permit or certificate
  • procedures for an attendant to remain outside a confined space when entry is done under permit-required conditions
  • procedures for summoning rescuers and preventing unauthorized personnel from attempting rescue
  • coordinate entry for more than one employer, such as contract workers
  • review of program at least annually
  • recordkeeping

2. Confined Space identification

Confined spaces that have serious hazards, or potential hazards, must be identified and classified as permit-required spaces. Employees must be made aware of these spaces, preferably by posting a warning sign at each entrance.

3. Environmental Evaluation
All potential hazards of the confined space must be identified and evaluated. A designated trained department employee is required to test the atmosphere in the space before, and under some conditions, during the entry, if the potential for a permit-required atmospheric hazard exists in the space. The tests, done with calibrated direct-reading instruments, are for oxygen content, flammable gases or vapors, and potential toxic air contaminants.

4. Hazard Elimination
All feasible means must be used to eliminate or control potential permit-required hazards associated with the confined space. This may include lockout/tagout of electrical or mechanical equipment, purging and ventilation, cleaning processes, and/or requirements for special equipment and tools.

5. Certificates
When all potential permit-required hazards associated with a confined space can be eliminated or controlled prior to entry, special certificates can be signed and issued by an authorized supervisor allowing entry into the confined space without full permit precautions.

6. Permit
A confined space entry permit must be used by the department making a confined space entry whenever all the permit-required hazards can not be eliminated or controlled prior to and during the entry. Each permit must specify location and type of work to be done, certify the space has been evaluated and tested by a qualified person, and confirm all necessary protective measures have been taken to ensure worker safety. When all hazards have been addressed satisfactorily and appropriate rescue services are available, the permit must be reviewed and signed by the person authorized to supervise entry.

7. Training
Employees who may enter permitted confined spaces must be trained specifically in confined space entry procedures. Training includes the functions that may be assigned to each employee as a member of the entry team, such as supervisor, attendant, contaminant tester, or entrant, and actions to be taken in the event of an emergency.

8. Documentation
Departments are required to maintain their written confined space entry program, employee training records (syllabus, attendance), test equipment calibration records, and used permits.

10.4 – Personal Protective Equipment

Introduction

Purpose

In accordance with applicable regulations and institutional policy, this policy was developed to ensure that all Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is appropriately purchased, used and maintained. Any person who anticipates or determines that its use is required to decrease the likelihood that an injury or illness can occur. PPE is not a substitute for proper administrative controls, engineering controls or work practice. PPE must be provided (at no cost to the user), used, and maintained when it has been determined through a hazard assessment that its use is required.

Applicability

This policy is applicable to all employees of Temple University (TU) and Temple University Health System (TUHS) and to all work conducted under the authority of TU and TUHS. Non-Temple and contractor personnel must follow the provisions of this policy while working at these facilities.

This program addresses eye, face, and head, foot, and hand protection. Separate programs exist for Respiratory Protection Program and Hearing Conservation Program.

All employees, contractors and students are required to follow the requirements listed in this policy.

Responsibilities

Environmental Health and Radiation Safety (EHRS)

  • Policy Development
  • Workplace hazard assessments when requested by responsible supervisor
  • Provide guidance on selection and training on the proper use, care and cleaning of PPE when requested by a responsible supervisor
  • Conduct periodic audits to ensure that proper PPE is being used and maintained

Principal Investigators, Supervisors and Managers:

  • Conduct a Hazard Assessment to determine what PPE is necessary. The Hazard Assessment must be conducted at least annually or whenever a new hazard is introduced or when additional processes are added or changed.
  • Provide (at no cost the user) and make available all PPE that was identified during the hazard assessment
  • Ensure that all users are trained in the proper use, care and cleaning of PPE
  • Maintain records on PPE training and ensure that they are available upon request
  • Ensure that all users are issued a copy of this section. The copy should be available in the users work area
  • Ensure that all users follow the procedures listed in this document as well as departmental/hospital specific polices
  • Seek guidance from EHRS to evaluate hazards
  • Notify EHRS whenever new hazards are introduced or when additional processes are added or changed.
  • Ensure that all defective or damaged equipment is immediately replaced.
  • Make the required report such as release, loss, intentional or unintentional injuries and security breaches
  • Develop and maintain site specific Standard Operating Procedures.

Users

  • Attend the required training classes
  • Ensure that all PPE is adequately used, cared for and cleaned
  • Follow the instructions of the PI/Supervisor/Manager and EHRS
  • Comply with the requirement as stated in this policy
  • Inform the PI/Supervisor/Manager of the need to repair or replace any PPE
  • Obtain additional information regarding safety, security, inventory and risk of operation to be fully informed regarding ones duties and to accurately assess health related risks

Program Components

Hazard Assessment and Equipment Selection

  • The PI/Supervisor/Manager must conduct inspections of all the workplaces in their area to determine the need for personal protective equipment (PPE) and to help in selecting the proper PPE for each tasks performed. Contact EHRS at 215-707-2520 for assistance
  • For each work site, a documented survey must be completed which lists the findings of the inspection and the specific protective equipment needed. The survey must identify the area surveyed, the person conducting the survey, findings of potential hazards and the date of the survey
  • Possible sources of hazards included but not limited to impact, penetration, compression, chemical, heat, dust, electrical sources, material handling, and light radiation. Each survey will be documented using the Hazard Assessment Certification Form (Appendix B),which identifies the workplace surveyed, the person conducting the survey, findings of potential hazards, and date of the survey.
  • Once the hazards of a workplace have been identified, the PI/Supervisor/Manger must determine the suitability of the PPE presently available and as necessary select new or additional equipment which ensures a level of protection greater than the minimum required to protect the employees from the hazards. Care will be taken to recognize the possibility of multiple and simultaneous exposure to a variety of hazards. Adequate protection against the highest level of each of the hazards will be provided or recommended for purchase.

Protective Devices

  • All personal protective clothing and equipment will be of safe design and construction for the work to be performed and shall be maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition.
  • Only those items of protective clothing and equipment that meet NIOSH or ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standards will be procured or accepted for use. All PPE must conform to the latest edition of the ANSI standards:
    • Eye and Face Protection ANSI Z87.1
    • Head Protection ANSI Z89.1
    • Foot Protection ANSI Z41.1
    • Hand Protection There are no ANSI standards for gloves, however, selection must be based on the performance characteristics of the glove in relation to the tasks to be performed.
  • Careful consideration will be given to comfort and fit of PPE in order to ensure that it will be used. Protective devices are generally available in a variety of sizes. Care should be taken to ensure that the right size is selected.

Eye and Face Protection

  • Prevention of eye injuries requires that all persons who may be in eye hazard areas wear protective eyewear. This includes employees, visitors, researchers, contractors, or others passing through an identified eye hazard area. To provide protection for these personnel, Supervisors of such areas shall procure a sufficient quantity of goggles and/or plastic eye protectors which afford the maximum amount of protection possible. If these personnel wear personal glasses, they shall be provided with a suitable eye protector to wear over them.
  • Suitable protectors shall be used when employees are exposed to hazards from flying particles, molten metal, acids or caustic liquids, chemical liquids, gases, or vapors, bioaerosols, or potentially injurious light radiation.
  • Wearers of contact lenses must also wear appropriate eye and face protection devices in a hazardous environment.
  • Side protectors shall be used when there is a hazard from flying objects.
  • Goggles and face shields shall be used when there is a hazard from chemical splash.
  • Face shields shall only be worn over primary eye protection (safety glasses or goggles).
  • For employees who wear prescription lenses, eye protectors shall either incorporate the prescription in the design or fit properly over the prescription lenses.
    • Protectors shall be marked to identify the manufacturer.
  • Equipment fitted with appropriate filter lenses shall be used to protect against light radiation. Tinted and shaded lenses are not filter lenses unless they are marked or identified as such.

Prescription Safety Eyewear

  • OSHA regulations require that each affected employee who wears prescription lenses while engaged in operations that involve eye hazards shall wear eye protection that incorporates the prescription in its design, or shall wear eye protection that can be worn over the prescription lenses (goggles, faceshields) without disturbing the proper position of the prescription lenses or the protective lenses.

Emergency Eyewash and Shower

  • Emergency eyewash facilities meeting the latest edition requirements of ANSI Z358.1 will be provided in all areas where the eyes of any employee may be exposed to corrosive materials. Please see the EHRS policy on emergency eyewash

Head Projection

  • Head protection will be furnished to, and used by, all employees and contractors engaged in construction and other miscellaneous work.
  • Head protection is also required to be worn by engineers, inspectors, and visitors at construction sites when hazards from falling or fixed objects or electrical shock are present.
  • Bump caps/skull guards will be issued and worn for protection against scalp lacerations from contact with sharp objects. However, they will not be worn as substitutes for safety caps/hats because they do not afford protection from high impact forces or penetration by falling objects.
  • Head protection must be worn correctly. Ex. Hard hats must not be worn backwards

Foot Protection

  • Safety shoes shall be worn in the shops, warehouses, maintenance, cage wash, glassware, and other areas as determined by EHRS.
  • All safety footwear shall comply with ANSI Z41- "American National Standard for Personal Protection - Protective Footwear."
  • Safety shoes or boots with impact protection are required to be worn in work areas where carrying or handling materials such as packages, objects, parts or heavy tools, which could be dropped; and for other activities where objects might fall onto the feet.
  • Safety shoes or boots with compression protection are required for work activities involving skid trucks (manual materials handling cars) or other activities in which materials or equipment could potentially roll over an employee’s feet.
  • Safety shoes or boots with puncture protection are required where sharp objects such as nails, wire, tacks, screws, large staples, scrap metal etc., could be stepped on by employees causing a foot injury.

Hand Protection

  • Suitable gloves shall be worn when hazards from chemicals, cuts, lacerations, abrasions, punctures, burns, biological, and harmful temperature extremes are present.
  • Glove selection shall be based on performance characteristics of the gloves, conditions, durations of use, and hazards present. One type of glove will not work in all situations.
  • The first consideration in the selection of gloves for use against chemicals is to determine, if possible, the exact nature of the substances to be encountered. Read instructions and warnings on chemical container labels and MSDSs before working with any chemical. Recommended glove types are often listed in the section for personal protective equipment.
  • All glove materials are eventually permeated by chemicals. However, they can be used safely for limited time periods if specific use and other characteristics (i.e., thickness and permeation rate and time) are known. EHRS can assist in determining the specific type of glove material that should be worn for a particular chemical.

Selection and Use OF PPE in Laboratories

  • PPE may be required to reduce the risk of exposure of an employee by contact, inhalation or ingestion of an infectious agent, toxic substance, or radioactive material.
  • Section 5.Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) & Safety Equipment of the Chemical Hygiene Guide must be consulted for proper PPE in the laboratory setting.
  • Consultation with CDC/NIH BMBL, Lab Supervisor, IBC, and or EHRS will determine the Biosafety Level for the lab and the appropriate type of PPE required to be worn while working in the lab.
  • Personnel utilizing radioactive materials are required to follow the requirements for protective equipment and clothing provided by the Radiation Safety Guide and the Radiation Safety Officer.

Cleaning and Maintenance

  • PPE be kept clean and properly maintained.
  • Cleaning is particularly important for eye and face protection where dirty or fogged lenses could impair vision.
  • PPE should be inspected, cleaned, and maintained at regular intervals so that the PPE provides the designed protection.
  • Personal protective equipment shall not be shared between employees until it has been properly cleaned and sanitized.
  • PPE will be distributed for individual use whenever possible.
  • Contaminated PPE which cannot be decontaminated must be disposed of in a manner that protects employees from exposure to hazards.

Training

  • Anyone who is administered and or required to wear PPE must receive training in the proper use and care of PPE. Periodic retraining is offered upon request through EHRS The training shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following subjects:
    • When PPE is necessary to be worn.
    • What PPE is necessary
    • How to properly don, doff, adjust, and wear PPE.
    • The limitations of the PPE.
    • The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.
  • Individuals will be required to demonstrate that they understand the components of the PPE Program and how to use PPE properly, or they shall be retrained.

Recordkeeping

  • Written records must be kept of the names of persons trained, the type of training provided, and the dates when training occurred.
  • The Supervisor must maintain their employees’ training records for at least 3 years.
  • The Supervisor must maintain the Hazard Assessment Certification Form for each work site evaluated for at least 3 years.

10.4a – Personal Protective Equipment – Appendix A

General Guidelines for Choosing Personal Protective Equipment

Description and Use of Eye/Face Protectors

Safety Glasses. Protective eyeglasses are made with safety frames, tempered glass or plastic lenses, temples and side shields which provide eye protection from moderate impact and particles encountered in job tasks such as carpentry, woodworking, grinding, scaling, etc. Safety glasses are also available in prescription form for those persons who need corrective lenses.

Single Lens Goggles. Vinyl framed goggles of soft pliable body design provide adequate eye protection from many hazards. These goggles are available with clear or tinted lenses, perforated, port vented, or non-vented frames. Single lens goggles provide similar protection to spectacles and may be worn in combination with spectacles or corrective lenses to insure protection along with proper vision.

Welders/Chippers Goggles. These goggles are available in rigid and soft frames to accommodate single or two eyepiece lenses.

Welders goggles provide protection from sparking, scaling, or splashing metals and harmful light rays. Lenses are impact resistant and are available in graduated shades of filtration.

Chippers/Grinders goggles provide eye protection from flying particles. The dual protective eye cups house impact resistant clear lenses with individual cover plates.

Face Shields. These normally consist of an adjustable headgear and face shield of tinted/transparent acetate or polycarbonate materials, or wire screen. Face shields are available in various sizes, tensile strength, impact/heat resistance and light ray filtering capacity. Face shields will be used in operations when the entire face needs protection and should be worn to protect eyes and face against flying particles, metal sparks, and chemical/biological splash.

Welding Shields. These shield assemblies consist of vulcanized fiber or glass fiber body, a ratchet/button type adjustable headgear or cap attachment and a filter and cover plate holder. These shields will be provided to protect workers’ eyes and face from infrared or radiant light burns, flying sparks, metal spatter and slag chips encountered during welding, brazing, soldering, resistance welding, bare or shielded electric arc welding and oxyacetylene welding and cutting operations.

Head Protection

Head injuries are caused by falling or flying objects, or by bumping the head against a fixed object. Head protectors, in the form or protective hats, must resist penetration an absorb the shock of a blow. The shell of the protective hat is hard enough to resist the blow and the headband and crown straps keep the shell away from the wearer’s skull. Protective hats can also protect against electrical shock.

Eye and Face Protection Selection Chart

Source

Assessment of Hazard

Protection

IMPACT - Chipping, grinding, machining, drilling, chiseling, riveting, sanding, etc.

Flying fragments, objects, large chips, particles, sand, dirt, etc.

Spectacles with side protection, goggles, face shields.
For severe exposure, use face shield over primary eye protection.

CHEMICALS - Acid and chemicals handling

Splash


Irritating mists

Goggles, eyecup and cover types.
For severe exposure, use face shield over primary eye protection
Special-purpose goggles

DUST - Woodworking, buffing, general dusty conditions

Nuisance dust

Goggles, eyecup and cover types.

LIGHT and/or RADIATION
Welding - electric arc


Welding - gas



Cutting, torch brazing, torch soldering

Glare


Optical radiation


Optical radiation



Optical radiation


Poor vision


Welding helmets or welding shields. Typical shades: 10-14

Welding goggles or welding face shield. Typical shades: gas welding 4-8, cutting 3-6, brazing 3-4

Spectacles or welding face shield. Typical shades: 1.5-3

Spectacles with shaded or special-purpose lenses, as suitable.

Protective hats are made in the following types and classes:

Type I - Helmets with a full brim.

Type 2 - Brimless helmets with a peak extending forward from the crown.

Class A - General Service, limited voltage. Intended for protection against impact hazards. Used in mining, construction, and manufacturing.

Class B - Utility service, high voltage. Used by electrical workers.

Class C - Special service, no voltage protection. Designed for lightweight comfort and impact protection. Used in certain construction, manufacturing, refineries, and where there is a possibility of bumping the head against a fixed object.

3. Foot Protection

There are many types and styles of protective footwear and it’s important to realize that a particular job may require additional protection other than listed here. Footwear that meets established safety standards will have an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) label inside each shoe.

Steel-Reinforced Safety Shoes. These shoes are designed to protect feet from common machinery hazards such as falling or rolling objects, cuts, and punctures. The entire toe box and insole are reinforced with steel, and the instep is protected by steel, aluminum, or plastic materials. Safety shoes are also designed to insulate against temperature extremes and may be equipped with special soles to guard against slip, chemicals, and/or electrical hazards.

Safety Boots. Safety boots offer more protection when splash or spark hazards (chemicals, molten materials) are present:

When working with corrosives, caustics, cutting oils, and petroleum products, neoprene or nitrile boots are often required to prevent penetration.

Foundry or "Gaiter" style boots feature quick-release fasteners or elasticized insets to allow speedy removal should any hazardous substances get into the boot itself.

When working with electricity, special electrical hazard boots are available and are designed with no conductive materials other than the steel toe (which is properly insulated).

4. Hand Protection

Skin contact is a potential source of exposure to toxic materials; it is important that the proper steps be taken to prevent such contact. Most accidents involving hands and arms can be classified under four main hazard categories: chemicals, abrasions, cutting, and heat. There are gloves available that can protect workers from any of these individual hazards or any combination thereof.

Gloves should be replaced periodically, depending on frequency of use and permeability to the substance(s) handled. Gloves overtly contaminated should be rinsed and then carefully removed after use.

Gloves should also be worn whenever it is necessary to handle rough or sharp-edged objects, and very hot or very cold materials. The type of glove materials to be used in these situations include leather, welder’s gloves, aluminum-backed gloves, and other types of insulated glove materials.

Careful attention must be given to protecting your hands when working with tools and machinery. Power tools and machinery must have guards installed or incorporated into their design that prevent the hands from contacting the point of operation, power train, or other moving parts. To protect hands from injury due to contact with moving parts, it is important to:

Ensure that guards are always in place and used.

Always lock-out machines or tools and disconnect the power before making repairs.

Treat a machine without a guard as inoperative; and

Do not wear gloves around moving machinery, such as drill presses, mills, lathes, and grinders.

The following is a guide to the most common types of protective work gloves and the types of hazards they can guard against:

Disposable Gloves. Disposable gloves, usually made of light-weight plastic, can help guard against mild irritants.

Fabric Gloves. Made of cotton or fabric blends are generally used to improve grip when handling slippery objects. They also help insulate hands from mild heat or cold.

Leather Gloves. These gloves are used to guard against injuries from sparks or scraping against rough surfaces. They are also used in combination with an insulated liner when working with electricity.

Metal Mesh Gloves. These gloves are used to protect hands form accidental cuts and scratches. They are used most commonly by persons working with cutting tools or other sharp instruments.

Aluminized Gloves. Gloves made of aluminized fabric are designed to insulate hands from intense heat. These gloves are most commonly used by persons working molten materials.

Chemical Resistance Gloves. These gloves may be made of rubber, neoprene, polyvinyl alcohol or vinyl, etc. The gloves protect hands from corrosives, oils, and solvents. The following table is provided as a guide to the different types of glove materials and the chemicals they can be used against. When selecting chemical resistance gloves, be sure to consult the manufacturers’ recommendations, especially if the gloved hand will be immersed in the chemical.

Glove Chart

Type

Advantages

Disadvantages

Use Against

Natural rubber

Low cost, good physical properties, dexterity

Poor vs. oils, greases, organics. Frequently imported; may be poor quality

Bases, alcohols, dilute water solutions; fair vs. aldehydes, ketones.

Natural rubber blends

Low cost, dexterity, better chemical resistance than natural rubber vs. some chemicals

Physical properties frequently inferior to natural rubber

Same as natural rubber

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Low cost, very good physical properties, medium cost, medium chemical resistance

Plasticizers can be stripped; frequently imported may be poor quality

Strong acids and bases, salts, other water solutions, alcohols

Neoprene

Medium cost, medium chemical resistance, medium physical properties

NA

Oxidizing acids, anilines, phenol, glycol ethers

Nitrile

Low cost, excellent physical properties, dexterity

Poor vs. benzene, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, many ketones

Oils, greases, aliphatic chemicals, xylene, perchloroethylene, trichloroethane; fair vs. toluene

Butyl

Speciality glove, polar organics

Expensive, poor vs. hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents

Glycol ethers, ketones, esters

Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)

Specialty glove, resists a very broad range of organics, good physical properties

Very expensive, water sensitive, poor vs. light alcohols

Aliphatics, aromatics, chlorinated solvents, ketones (except acetone), esters, ethers

Fluoro- elastomer (Viton) ™ *

Specialty glove, organic solvents

Extremely expensive, poor physical properties, poor vs. some ketones, esters, amines

Aromatics, chlorinated solvents, also aliphatics and alcohols

Norfoil (Silver Shield)

Excellent chemical resistance

Poor fit, easily punctures, poor grip, stiff

Use for Hazmat work

*Trademark of DuPont Dow Elastomers

Glove Type and Chemical Use

*Limited service

VG= Very Good

G= Good

F=Fair

P=Poor (not recommended)

Chemical

Neoprene

Natural Latex
or Rubber

Butyl

Nitrile Latex

*Acetaldehyde

VG

G

VG

G

Acetic acid

VG

VG

VG

VG

*Acetone

G

VG

VG

P

Ammonium hydroxide

VG

VG

VG

VG

*Amyl acetate

F

P

F

P

Aniline

G

F

F

P

*Benzaldehyde

F

F

G

G

*Benzene

F

F

F

P

Butyl acetate

G

F

F

P

Butyl alcohol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Carbon disulfide

F

F

F

F

*Carbon tetrachloride

F

P

P

G

Castor oil

F

P

F

VG

*Chlorobenzene

F

P

F

P

*Chloroform

G

P

P

P

Chloronaphthalene

F

P

F

F

Chromic Acid (50%)

F

P

F

F

Citric acid (10%)

VG

VG

VG

VG

Cyclohexanol

G

F

G

VG

*Dibutyl phthalate

G

P

G

G

Diesel fuel

G

P

P

VG

Diisobutyl ketone

P

F

G

P

Dimethylformamide

F

F

G

G

Dioctyl phthalate

G

P

F

VG

Dioxane

VG

G

G

G

Epoxy resins, dry

VG

VG

VG

VG

*Ethyl acetate

G

F

G

F

Ethyl alcohol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Ethyl ether

VG

G

VG

G

*Ethylene dichloride

F

P

F

P

Ethylene glycol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Formaldehyde

VG

VG

VG

VG


Chemical


Neoprene

Natural Latex
or Rubber


Butyl


Nitrile

Formic acid

VG

VG

VG

VG

Freon 11

G

P

F

G

Freon 12

G

P

F

G

Freon 21

G

P

F

G

Freon 22

G

P

F

G

*Furfural

G

G

G

G

Gasoline, leaded

G

P

F

VG

Gasoline, unleaded

G

P

F

VG

Glycerine

VG

VG

VG

VG

Hexane

F

P

P

G

Hydrochloric acid

VG

G

G

G

Hydrofluoric acid (48%)

VG

G

G

G

Hydrogen peroxide (30%)

G

G

G

G

Hydroquinone

G

G

G

F

Isooctane

F

P

P

VG

Isopropyl alcohol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Kerosene

VG

F

F

VG

Ketones

G

VG

VG

P

Lacquer thinners

G

F

F

P

Lactic acid (85%)

VG

VG

VG

VG

Lauric acid (36%)

VG

F

VG

VG

Lineoleic acid

VG

P

F

G

Linseed oil

VG

P

F

VG

Maleic acid

VG

VG

VG

VG

Methyl alcohol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Methylamine

F

F

G

G

Methyl bromide

G

F

G

F

*Methyl chloride

P

P

P

P

*Methyl ethyl ketone

G

G

VG

P

*Methyl isobutyl ketone

F

F

VG

P

Methyl methacrylate

G

G

VG

F

Monoethanolamine

VG

G

VG

VG

Morpholine

VG

VG

VG

G


Chemical


Neoprene

Natural Latex
or Rubber


Butyl


Nitrile

Naphthalene

G

F

F

G

Naphthas, aliphatic

VG

F

F

VG

Naphthas, aromatic

G

P

P

G

*Nitric acid

G

F

F

F

Nitromethane (95.5%)

F

P

F

F

Nitropropane (95.5%)

F

P

F

F

Octyl alcohol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Oleic acid

VG

F

G

VG

Oxalic acid

VG

VG

VG

VG

Palmitic acid

VG

VG

VG

VG

Perchloric acid (60%)

VG

F

G

G

Perchloroethylene

F

P

P

G

Petroleum distillates (naphtha)

G

P

P

VG

Phenol

VG

F

G

F

Phosphoric acid

VG

G

VG

VG

Potassium hydroxide

VG

VG

VG

VG

Propyl acetate

G

F

G

F

Propyl alcohol

VG

VG

VG

VG

Propyl alcohol (iso)

VG

VG

VG

VG

Sodium hydroxide

VG

VG

VG

VG

Styrene

P

P

P

F

Stryene (100%)

P

P

P

F

Sulfuric acid

G

G

G

G

Tannic acid (65%)

VG

VG

VG

VG

Tetrahydrofuran

P

F

F

F

*Toluene

F

P

P

F

Toluene diisocyanate

F

G

G

F

*Trichloroethylene

F

F

P

G

Triethanolamine

VG

G

G

VG

Tung oil

VG

P

F

VG

Turpentine

G

F

F

VG

*Xylene

P

P

P

F

*Limited service

VG= Very Good

G= Good

F=Fair

P=Poor (not recommended)

10.4b – Personal Protective Equipment Hazard Assessment

Instructions

The form below is a tool which will assist you in conducting a hazard assessment to see if your employees need to use personal protective equipment (PPE) by identifying activities that may create hazards for your employees. The activities are grouped according to what part of the body might need PPE. You can make copies, modify and/or customize the form to fit the specific needs of your particular work place.

  1. Conduct a walk through/survey of each work area and job/task. Read the list of work activities in the first column, putting a check next to the activities performed in that work area or job.
  2. Read through the list of hazards in the second column, putting a check mark next to the hazards which employees may be exposed to while performing the work activities or while present in the work area. ( example: Work activity: Cleaning up body fluids, work related exposure: Blood/body fluid splash and chemicals)
  3. Determine how you are going to control the hazards. Try considering engineering controls (ventilation, hoods, etc...) or work place/administrative controls (replacing a particular item or practice) to eliminate and/or reduce the hazards before resorting to using PPE. If the hazard cannot be eliminated without using PPE, indicate what type (s) of PPE will be required to protect your employee from the hazard.
    1. Refer to the PPE policy to assist you in determining the proper type of PPE needed. Additional sources of information for PPE are manufactures recommendation, material safety data sheet, etc...
    2. Additional requirements may be needed for Respiratory and Hearing. Please consult those policies to determine if additional requirements are necessary
  4. Make sure that you complete the following fields on the form to certify that a hazard assessment was conducted:
    1. Date of Assessment
    2. Building
    3. Work Area
    4. Job/Task
    5. Signature of Assessor

Temple University

PPE Hazard Assessment Certification Form

Date Of Assessment:

Building(s):

Assessment Conducted by:

Work Area(s):

Job/Task(s):

I certify that the assessment was performed to the best of my knowledge and ability based on the hazards present.

Signature of Assessor:________________________________________

EYES

Work activities, such as:

Chopping Cutting

Drilling  Welding

Healthcare/DentalSanding

 Sawing Grinding

HammeringLasers

Laboratory/Hazardous MaterialsPouring

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Airborne dust

Flying particles/projectiles

Biological/Blood/Body fluid splashes

 Intense Light

Laser/optical radiation

Chemicals and/or splashes

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Safety GlassesSide Shields

Safety GogglesLaser Eyewear

Welding ShieldShading glasses

 Other:_______________________

FACE

Work activities, such as:

SiphoningPainting

Welding  Mixing

Healthcare/DentalPouring

Laboratory/Hazardous Materials

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Flying particles/projectiles

Biological/Blood/Body Fluid splashes

 Extreme heat/cold

Potential Irritants_______________

Chemicals and splashes

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Face ShieldWelding Shield

 Other:_______________________

HEAD

Work activities, such as:

Building maintenance

Confined Space operations

Construction

 Electrical wiring

Walking/working under catwalks

Walking/working under cranes/lifts

Utility work

Maintenance activities

Welding

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Beams/Pipes

Sharp Objects/Corners at head level

 Exposed electrical wiring/components

Falling Objects

Machine Parts

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Protective Helmet

Type A (low voltage)

Type B (high voltage)

Type C

Welding Helmet

 Other:_______________________

HAND/ARMS

Work activities, such as:

Building maintenance

Baking/CookingConstruction

 Demolition

Working with Glass

PlumbingUtility work

Welding

Laboratory/Hazardous Materials

Health Care/Dental

Using Knives

Material Handling

 Sanding/Sawing/Hammering

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Biological/Blood/Body fluid splashes

 Chemicals and/or splashes

 Tools or materials that could scrape/ bruise or cut

 Extreme heat/cold

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Gloves

Chemical resistance

Temperature resistance

Abrasion/cut resistance

Slip resistance

Task Specific___________________

Protective Sleeves

 Other:_______________________

FEET/LEGS

Work activities, such as:

Building maintenance

Construction  Demolition

PlumbingUtility work

Welding

Health Care/Dental

Laboratory/Hazardous Materials

Material Handling

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Exposed electrical wiring/components

 Chemicals and/or splashes

 Heavy Equipment

 Slippery Surfaces

 Tools

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Gloves

Toe protection

Electrical protection

Puncture resistance

Slip resistance

Heat/Cold resistance

Chemical resistance

Task Specific___________________

Foot/leg Guards

 Other:_______________________

BODY/SKIN

Work activities, such as:

Building maintenance

Construction  Demolition

Baking/Frying

Health Care/Dental

Laboratory/Hazardous Materials

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Chemicals and/or splashes

 Extreme Heat/Cold

 Sharp/Rough Edges

 Irritating debris (i.e. insulation)

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Coveralls, Body Suit

General

Chemical resistance

Task Specific___________________

Vest, Jacket

Apron

 Other:_______________________

RESPIRATORY

Work activities, such as:

Building maintenance

Construction  Demolition

Mixing/Pouring

Painting

Sawing

Health Care/Dental

Laboratory/Hazardous Materials

Laser

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Chemicals

 Irritating dust or particulate

 Bioaeresols

 Laser Airborne Generated Contaminants ( LGAC)

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Air-Purifying Disposable Respirator

N-Series: ___________________

R- Series ___________________

P-Series ___________________

Air-Purifying Chemical Cartridge

Full Face -Cartridge Type ____________

Half -Cartridge Type ____________

Powered Air-Purifying Respirator

Type______________

Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus(SCBA)

Airline Respirator

Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus (EEBA)

 Other:_______________________

EARS/HEARING

Work activities, such as:

Building maintenance

Construction  Demolition

Generator

Ventilation Fans/Motors

Sawing/Grinding/Routers/Sanding

Health Care/Dental

Pneumatic Equipment

 Other:__________________

N/A

Work-related exposure to:

Loud Noises

 Loud Work Environment

 Noisy Machines/tools

 Other:________________________

Can hazard be eliminated without the use of PPE?

YesNo

If no, use:

Earplugs

Hearing Bands

Ear muffs

 Other:_______________________

10.5 – Emergency Equipment (Eyewash, Showers, and Drench Hose)

Introduction

Purpose

In accordance with applicable regulations and institutional policy, this policy was developed to ensure that emergency showers, eyewash equipment , combination shower and eyewash or eye/face wash units are appropriately purchased, installed and maintained.

Applicability

This policy is applicable to any area when there is a reasonable probability of a hazardous or injurious eye, face and/or body exposure. All employees, contractors and students shall be required to utilize approved and appropriate protective eye, face and body equipment.

Emergency eye wash and/or shower equipment are not used in lieu of appropriate protective eye, face and body equipment.

OSHA requires that in locations “where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use. 

A plumbed eyewash or eye/face wash shall be provided for all work areas where, during the normal operations or foreseeable emergencies, the eyes and/or face of an individual may come into contact with a substance that is corrosive, severely irritating to the skin or is toxic by skin absorption.

NOTE: Single nozzle Drench hoses or sink faucet mounted eyewashes are not acceptable eyewash facilities

A plumbed emergency shower shall be provided for all work areas, where, during normal operations or foreseeable emergencies, the body may come into contact with a substance that is corrosive, severely irritating to the skin or is toxic by skin absorption.

Work areas include but are not limited to:

  • Locations where corrosive or caustic materials (pH equal to or less than 2 or greater than 12.5) are located.  For a strong acid or strong caustic, the eyewash/shower should be immediately adjacent to the hazard.

  • Whenever required by a standard or regulation

  • Chemical, biological and radioactive labs (eyewash station and shower)

  • Other work areas and operations when determined by a hazard assessment. Areas include but are not limited to:

    • Work Shops

    • Mechanical Rooms

    • Battery Changing/Charging Areas

    • Painting/Spraying Operations

    • Pesticide Storage

    • High Dust Areas

  • Whenever EHRS determines that emergency equipment is required

Additional guidance in determining the need for emergency equipment in a given location can be found in federal regulations, guidance documents, and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) establishes minimum performance and use standards for emergency equipment.  All emergency equipment shall meet the requirements of the latest edition of ANSI Z358.1 and shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the latest edition of ANSI Z358.1.

Responsibilities

Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department (EHRS)

The EHRS has the following responsibilities:          

  • Policy Development

  • Training as requested by responsible supervisor.

  • Hazard surveillance to evaluate the need for emergency equipment (emergency showers, eyewash equipment, combination shower and eyewash or eye/face wash units ) when requested by responsible supervisor

 

Facilities Management

  • Ensures that all Emergency Equipment (emergency showers, eyewash equipment, combination shower and eyewash or eye/face wash unit) will be installed and maintained according to the latest edition of the ANSI 358.1 standard and all other applicable regulations.

  • Ensures that all Emergency Equipment (emergency showers, eyewash equipment, combination shower and eyewash or eye/face wash unit) is maintained and will be inspected annually for conformance with the latest edition of the ANSI 358.1 Standard.

  • Responsible for ensuring that all the annual test records and installation records are readily available for review and inspection.

  • Maintain a master listing of all emergency equipment

Principal Investigators, Supervisors and Managers must:

  • Assess their site and operations to determine if emergency equipment (emergency showers, eyewash equipment, combination shower and eyewash or eye/face wash unit)    is required. Contact EHRS for additional guidance at 215-707-2520.

  • Responsible for ensuring that all staff under their supervision are trained and knowledgeable about the location and use of the emergency eyewash/shower or drench hose.

  • Responsible for ensuring that the procedures listed in this document are followed.

  • Responsible for ensuring that all emergency equipment are activated weekly for conformance with the latest edition of the ANSI 358.1 standard.  Department Chairs, Department Directors or Managers are responsible for ensuring that equipment in common use areas or hallways are activated on a weekly basis.

  • Responsible for ensuring that all the necessary test documents and training records are available for review upon request.

  • Inform Facilities Management prior to purchasing a new piece of emergency equipment to make sure that it is suitable for their workplace.

  • Maintain and review all relevant Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for product used.

  • Responsible for contacting Facilitates Management whenever needed for all maintenance and repair issues.

Users

  • Attend required training classes.

  • Use and maintain safety devices

  • Follow the instructions of the PI/supervisor and EHRS

  • Comply with the requirements as stated in this policy.

General Requirements

  1. Location of emergency equipment:

    1. Emergency equipment location must be based on the estimated time of travel of a person with compromised vision.

    2. No more than ten (10) seconds shall be required to reach the emergency equipment from the site of the hazard.

    3. For strong acid or strong caustic, the eye wash should be immediately adjacent to the hazard but far enough away from the hazard so that additional exposure to the hazard or exposure to electrical conductors does not occur.

    4. Emergency equipment shall be located on the same level as the hazard and the path of travel shall be free of obstructions that may inhibit the immediate use of the equipment. A door is considered to be an obstruction. If the hazard is not a corrosive, one intervening door can be present between hazard and emergency equipment so long as:

      • The door opens in the same direction of travel as the person attempting to reach the emergency equipment.

      • The door is equipped with a closing mechanism that cannot be locked to impede access to the emergency equipment.

    1. If both eyewash and shower are needed, they shall be located so that both can be used at the same time by one person.

    2. No obstructions, protrusions, or sharp objects shall be located within sixteen (16) inches from the center of the water spray pattern of the emergency showers or within six (6) inches from the center of the water spray pattern of the eye wash station.

    3. No items or equipment shall be placed under or near any emergency equipment.

    4. No electrical apparatus, telephones, thermostats, or power outlets should be located within eighteen (18) inches of either side of the emergency shower or eye wash.

    5. Eyewashes shall not be installed on a faucet spout.

  1. Signage

    1. Emergency equipment locations shall be identified with a highly visible sign.  The areas around the emergency equipment shall be well-lighted and highly visible.

    2. Whenever possible, the floor immediately beneath the emergency equipment and to a radius of between 12-30 inches shall be distinctive pattern and color to facilitate promoting clear path.

  2. Criteria for Emergency Equipment

    1. The equipment must be certified by the manufacturer as meeting the most recent edition of ANSI 358.1.

    2. The equipment shall have a controlled flow of flushing fluid that is provided to both eyes (for eyewashes), which is not injurious to the user.

    3. Valves (Levers, handles, etc...) on emergency equipment shall be designed so that the flushing fluid remains on without requiring the use of the operator’s hands. The valve shall be designed to remain activated until intentionally shut off.

    4. All emergency equipment shall be designed so that it can be activated in less than 1 second

    5. Emergency eyewash nozzles shall be protected from airborne contaminants and the removal of the eye wash covers shall not require a separate motion by the operator when activating the unit.

    6. The water temperature in emergency eyewash and shower equipment shall be “tepid.” ANSI defined as water with a temperature between 60° F. and 100° F. In circumstances where chemical reaction is accelerated by flushing fluid temperature, EHRS should be consulted for the optimum temperature for each application.

    7. Personal Wash Units, Drench Hoses( Single Nozzle) or Bottled Eyewashes

      • Must be pre-approved by EHRS prior to use. Please contact EHRS at 215-707-2520.

      • Provides immediate flushing to support plumbed and self-contained units but shall not replace them.

      • Must meet the requirement listed in the latest edition of the ANSI Z358.1

  1. Training

    1. Employees and students shall be trained to use the emergency equipment located in their work and or class area.

    2. Any employee or student coming in contact with any hazardous material shall have a local orientation to the actual chemicals and emergency equipment in use at their site:

      • Be trained in the proper use of the emergency equipment at their site prior to participating in a situation where they have a possible exposure to injurious corrosive materials.

      • This training must include the information about whether the chemical reaction of any chemical in that work area is accelerated by the temperature of the fluid from the emergency equipment.

      • Be trained to consult the information on Material Safety Data Sheet for information on how long to flush skin or eyes when exposed to a specific chemical.

      • This training is the responsibility of the person in charge of the laboratory, pharmacy, shop or area where the emergency equipment is located (including common use areas or hallways.) This responsibility may be delegated. The person delegating is still ultimately responsible if the training is not completed.

      • This training will be documented and must be readily available for review upon request.

        • The training shall include the use of Emergency Equipment located in halls adjacent to laboratories/shops/areas.

        • The training records will be kept in the local area until two (2) years has elapsed from training or whenever all people on that training record no longer work in that laboratory/work area—whichever is the longer period of time.

  1. Inspection and Testing

    1. All emergency equipment shall be activated and cleaned on a weekly basis by laboratory or workplace personnel. Activation, performance and cleaning must be documented and readily available upon request.

    2. All Emergency equipment will be inspected annually by Facilities Management for conformance with the latest edition of ANSI Z358.1.

10.6 – Lab Ventilation Equipment

Introduction

Purpose

The purpose of this program is to ensure that the all laboratory ventilation equipment including laboratory fume hoods and cabinets used at Temple University are properly , purchased, installed, renovated, operated and maintained in a manner capable of providing protection for faculty, staff, and students who use them. Fume hoods and cabinets are intended to remove bioaeresols, vapors, gases, particulates and dusts of toxic, flammable, corrosive or otherwise dangerous materials.

Applicability

This policy is applicable to all Temple University employees, to all work conducted under the authority of Temple University, and to all equipment and property managed by Temple University. Non-Temple and contractor personnel must follow the provisions of this policy while at Temple University facilities.

Standards & Codes:

The following codes and standards must be followed to ensure that the laboratory ventilation equipment are properly designed, purchased, renovated, installed, operated and maintained in a safe manner. The design and construction, installation and maintenance of laboratory ventilation systems and hood must be conducted by qualified individuals. Please consult with most recent current codes, guidelines, regulations and recommendations.

Responsibilities

Environmental Health and Radiation Safety Department (EHRS)

The EHRS has the following responsibilities:

  • Conduct Hazard Evaluation and assessment as requested by responsible supervisor.
  • Training as requested by responsible supervisor.
  • Ensure that all periodic face velocity measurements are conducted on hoods
  • Provide information to users on guidelines and operating procedures for safe use of hoods
  • Label hoods with periodic face velocity stickers, sash arrows, and work practices guide
  • Perform a face velocity survey on laboratory fume hoods at the request of a user.
  • Report the results of any fume hood survey to the user and relevant safety committee.
  • Report unsafe hoods to the user and Facilities Management Department immediately.
  • Perform a follow-up airflow survey promptly after appropriate repairs are completed on those fume hoods found unsafe.
  • Advice on the selection and installation of new fume hoods and advice on the relocation of existing hoods as requested.
  • Place a sign on fume hoods that are considered unsafe due to the airflow survey. The sign will be used to ensure the safety of the user and will remain in place until appropriate repairs are made.
  • Maintain a hood database.

Facilities Management must:

  • Ensure system capability
  • Ensure proper design, installation and commissioning (according to latest edition of ANSI/AIHA Z9.5) of laboratory ventilation systems
  • Ensure that performance test as listed in the latest edition of AIHA/ANSI z9.5 are conducted at least annually or whenever a significant change has been made to the operational characteristics of the hood system.
  • Conduct preventive and repair maintenance.
  • Ensure proper functioning of systems
  • Ensure system dependability
  • Maintain up-to-date system documentation and records
  • Advise on the selection and supervise installation of new and/or rebuilt fume hoods and approve the relocation of existing hoods.
  • Follow the routine preventive maintenance, notification, and hood testing procedures described below.
  • Monitors the laboratory Ventilation Management plan to ensure compliance.
  • Provides EHRS with all required information whenever a hood is introduced, removed or relocated.

Principal Investigators, Supervisors and Managers must:

  • Consult with EHRS and Facilities Management and provide adequate documentation before a new hood is ordered, installed, or an existing hood is renovated or relocated.
  • Ensure that the laboratory work carried out in the laboratory fume hood is appropriate for the type of hood available and the quality of ventilation present
  • Ensure that all Biological Safety Cabinets/Tissue Culture hoods/Laminar Flow hood are certified by a qualified person on at least an annual basis.
  • Ensure that performance test as listed in the latest edition of AIHA/ANSI z9.5 is conducted at least annually or whenever a significant change has been made to the operational characteristics of the hood system.
  • Ensures that the calibration of airflow alarms/monitoring devices are performed annually or anytime that they are reported to be malfunctioning.
  • Ensure that all routine maintenance is followed according to manufacturer’s guidelines on at least an annual basis.
  • Immediately report questionable operations of a laboratory fume hood to the EHRS and Facilities Management Departments.
  • Post fume hood safety procedures on all fume hoods
  • Responsible for ensuring that hoods and ventilation systems are appropriately cleaned and decontaminated prior to repair, maintenance or replacement.
  • Serve as the contact person for notification of any fume hood related issues.
  • Provide accurate information on any potentially hazardous materials
  • Ensure that all hood operators have been trained on how to use hoods safely and effectively.
  • Ensure that hood operators know how to respond in the event that hood airflow has been compromised.
  • Ensure that all employees under their supervision understand how to find information regarding the shut down of hoods (ex. E-mail messages, postings on hoods, etc...). This item should be checked prior to hood use.
  • If hoods or exhaust system has been used for perchloric acid heated above ambient temperature, you must inform maintenance personnel and EHRS before any inspection, maintenance, cleaning or any other work is done on any part of the exhaust system or hood interior. The hood and all parts of the exhaust system must be posted.
  • Contact EHRS prior to any hoods being taken out of service for repair or maintenance.
  • Ensure that hoods are not altered or modified without approval from Facilities Management and EHRS.

Hood Users

These workers have the following responsibilities related to activities:

  • Attend required training classes.
  • Follow proper procedures when using laboratory hoods or biological cabinets
  • Follow the instructions of the PI/supervisor and EHRS
  • Immediately report all suspected or confirmed hood problems (ex. No/low air flow/ cracked glass, light not working, etc.) Immediately to Supervisor and Facilities Management.
  • Check for postings and signs that the hood is malfunctioning or out of service. Do not use hoods.
  • Comply with the requirements as stated in this policy.

Laboratory Ventilation Systems

General Ventilation Considerations

  • The room should have mechanically generated supply air and exhaust air. All lab rooms shall use 100% outside air and exhaust to the outside. There shall be no return of fume hood and laboratory exhaust back into the building.
  • All room air balances shall be conducted by a qualified person in accordance with applicable regulations.
  • Mechanical climate control should be provided. Consult latest edition of ASHRAE 55 for thermal comfort requirements.
  • Cabinetry or other structures or equipment must not block or reduce effectiveness of supply or exhaust air.
  • General laboratories shall have a minimum of 10-air changes/hour.
  • Adequate numbers and types of fume hoods shall be installed for anticipated laboratory operations.
  • The system shall have at least 25% excess capacity for future expansion.
  • Exhaust fans serving teaching hoods shall be separated from exhaust fans serving research hood exhaust whenever possible.
  • Laboratories must be maintained under negative pressure in relation to the corridor or other less hazardous areas. Clean rooms requiring positive pressure should have entry vestibules provided with door closing mechanisms so that both doors are not open at the same time. Consult with Fire Marshall for additional information.
  • Where appropriate, general ventilation systems should be designed, such that, in the event of an accident, they can be shut down and isolated to contain hazardous materials.
  • Dedicated radioisotope, carcinogen, or hot acid (perchloric) fume hoods shall be single ducted.
  • The air velocity volume in each duct should be sufficient to prevent condensation or liquid or condonable solids on the walls of the ducts.
  • Fume hoods should not be the sole means of room air exhaust. General room exhaust outlets shall be provided where necessary to maintain minimum air exchange rates and temperature control.
  • Operable windows should be prohibited in new lab building and should not be used on modifications to existing buildings.
  • Local exhaust ventilation (e,g, “snorkels” or “elephant trunks”, other than fume hoods shall be designed to adequately control exposures to hazardous chemicals. An exhausted manifold or manifolds with connection to local exhaust may be provided as needed to collect potentially hazardous exhausts from gas chromatographs, vacuum pumps, lasers, or other equipment which can produce potentially hazardous air pollutants. The contaminant source needs to be enclosed as much as possible, consistent with operational needs, to maximize control effectiveness and minimize air handling difficulties and costs.
  • Hoods should be labeled to show which fan or ventilation system they are connected to.
  • Noise generated by the functioning fume hood within 6 inches of the plane of the sash and by-pass opening in any position shall not exceed 60dBA.
  • Air exhausted from laboratory work areas shall not pass unducted through other areas.

Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems

  • Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems should be considered to reduce laboratory operating costs (including energy use).
  • Pressure independent constant volume or variable column air valves for supply and exhaust shall be provided for pressurization control and continuous air balance control. The air balance shall also be maintained during night setback/unoccupied schedule.

Negative Pressurization

  • Airflow shall be from low hazard to high hazards areas.
  • The laboratory control system shall continuously determine supply airflow, exhaust airflow and be comparing these values, ensure design lab pressurization is maintained. A room offset of 10% of the maximum air value to the room is recommended or 100 cfm, whichever is greater.
  • An adequate supply of make up air (90% of exhaust) should be provided to the lab.
  • An air lock or vestibule may be necessary in certain high-hazard laboratories or clean rooms to minimize the volume of supply air required for negative pressurization control. These doors should be provided with interlocks so that both doors cannot open at the same time. Consult with Fire Marshall for additional guidance.
  • A corridor should not be used as a plenum.

Manifolding

  • Hood exhaust may be manifolded together. Perchloric/hot acid, radioisotopes, carcinogen, and other hoods, exhausting highly reactive, incompatible or highly toxic materials shall not be manifolded and exhausted directly to the outside. Hoods requiring HEPA filtration or other special exhaust cleaning shall have a dedicated exhaust system.
  • For systems with multiple hoods and exhaust fans, adequate redundancy shall be built into the design. This shall be done by providing 75% capacity with the largest exhaust fan out of service, or providing a redundant fan equal to the capacity of the largest unit.
  • Class II-Type A and Type B3 biological safety cabinets manifolded with chemical laboratory chemical hoods shall have either
    • A thimble connection or
    • A constant volume control device and an interlock/alarm for these devices shall be installed between the cabinet outlet and the exhaust manifold
  • Fume hood controls shall be arranged so that the shutting down of one fume hood for maintenance will not reduce the exhaust capacity or create an imbalance between exhaust and supply for any other hood manifolded to the same system.
  • Fume hood exhaust fans shall not be shut down automatically when a smoke alert signal is detected in the supply air system. Consult with Fire Marshall for additional guidance.

Supply Air Arrangements

  • Room air currents at the fume hood should not exceed 20% of the average face velocity to ensure fume hood containment.
  • Make up air should be introduced at opposite end of the laboratory room from the fume hood(s) and flow paths for room HVAC shall be kept away from hood locations, to the extent practical.
  • Make up air shall be introduced in such a way that negative pressurization is maintained in al laboratory spaces and does not create a disruptive air pattern.
  • Cabinetry or other structures or equipment should not block or reduce effectiveness of supply or exhaust air.

Supply systems air should meet the technical requirements of the laboratory work and the requirements of the latest version of the ASHRAE, Standard 62- Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air QualityDucting

  • Exhaust ductwork shall be fire and corrosion resistant and selected based on its resistance to the primary corrosive present
  • Exhaust ductwork shall be sealed to protect against chemical attack.
  • Slope all horizontal ducting down towards the fume hood( recommended guideline: slope equals 1/8 inch to the foot)
  • The exhaust ducting shall be grounded to dissipate any static electricity. Lengths of electrically conductive ductwork on both sides of a flex connection or other insulating section in the airflow path shall be electrically grounded.
  • No laboratory ventilation system ductwork shall be internally insulated. Sound baffles or external acoustical insulation at the source should be used for noise control.
  • Automatic fire dampers shall not be used in laboratory exhaust systems. Fire detection and alarm systems shall not be interlocked to automatically shut down lab hood exhaust fans

Exhaust Fans and Systems

  • Treatment( i.e. filtration, scrubbing, etc..) is not required for laboratory and fume hood exhaust systems except when modeling or use estimates show that airborne levels of hazardous materials (chemical, biological or radiological) would exceed exposure limits at the point of discharge or exceed applicable community exposure levels at ground level.
  • Automatic fire dampers shall not be used in laboratory hood exhaust systems. Fire and alarm systems shall not be interlocked to automatically shut down lab hood exhaust fans. Consult with Fire Marshall for additional guidance.
  • Exhaust fans shall be oriented in an up-blast orientation.
  • Lab ventilation exhaust fans shall be spark-proof and construed of materials or coated with corrosion resistant materials for the chemicals being vented. V-belt drives shall be conductive
  • Fans should be provided with:
    • Outboard bearings
    • Shaft seal
    • Access door and
    • Multiple 150 percent rated belts or direct drive unless approved by a professional engineer.
  • Exhaust fans shall be located outside the building at the point of final discharge. Each fan shall be the last element of the system so that the ductwork through the building is under negative pressure.
  • Fans shall be installed so they are readily accessible for maintenance and inspection without entering the plenum.
  • Vibration isolators shall be sued to mount fans. Flexible connection sections to ductwork, such as neoprene coated glass fiber cloth, shall be used between the fan and its intake duct when such material is compatible with hood chemical use factors.
  • Each exhaust fan assembly shall be individually matched (cfm, static pressure, brake horsepower, etc.) to each lab ventilation system.

Building Discharge and Wind Engineering

  • Building discharges shall be located and designed in accordance with the latest ASHRAE-Handbook of Fundamentals. Fume hood and other potentially contaminated exhaust shall not be recirculated into the building air supply. Interactions with adjacent buildings and their supply air intake requirements shall be carefully evaluated.
  • Fume hood exhaust through the roof should have vertical stacks that terminate at least 10 feet above the roof or two feet above any parapet wall, whichever is greater., unless higher stacks are found to be necessary using the guidance in the latest version of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals
  • The discharge velocity from the stack shall be at least 3000 foot per minute.
  • All hood exhaust stacks on the roof shall be 50 feet if possible) downward from any air intakes.
  • Wind engineering evaluations shall be conducted for all wind directions striking all walls of a building. Actual height placement shall be confirmed via 3-D modeling in a wind tunnel where building exhaust is likely to have significant ground level impact, or is likely to affect air intake for nearby buildings.
  • Engineering generator exhaust shall be considered in the wind engineering study.

Noise

  • System design must provide for control of exhaust system noise (combination of fan generated noise and air generated noise) in the lab. Systems must be designed to achieve an acceptable Sound Pressure Level (SPL) frequency spectrum as described in the latest edition HVAC Application handbook

Emergency Power

  • Air handlers for chemical fume hoods should be connected to an emergency power station so that fans will automatically restart upon restoration after a power outage. The overall ventilation system shall supply and exhaust at least half of the normal airflow during an electrical power failure.
  • Momentary or extended losses of power shall not change or affect any of the control system’s set points, calibration settings, or emergency status. After power returns, the system shall continue operation, exactly as before, without the need for any manual intervention. Alarms shall require manual reset, should they indicate a potentially hazardous condition.

Laboratory Hoods

Hoods- Selection/Types

  • General: The following items must be considered when selecting a fume hood:
    • Operational research needs of the users
    • Room size(length x width x height)
    • Number of air changes
    • Lab heat load
    • Types of materials used
    • Linear feet of hood needed based on
      • Number of users/hood
      • Frequency of use
      • % time working at hood
      • Size of apparatus to be used in the hood, etc...
    • A facility designed for intensive chemical use should have at least 2.5 linear feet of hood per user
  • Constant Volume Hoods- These hoods permit a stable air balance between ventilation systems and exhaust by incorporating a bypass feature. If bypass is 100% this allows a constant volume of air to be exhausted through the hood regardless of sash position.
  • Variable Air Volume (VAV) fume hoods- These hoods maintain constant face velocities by varying exhaust volumes in response to changes in sash position. Because only the amount of air needed to maintain the specified face velocity is pulled from the room, significant energy savings are possible when the sash is closed. However, these hoods cost more up front and more maintenance and effective sash management is necessary
  • Supply or auxiliary air hoods- These hoods are not permitted, unless an exception is granted by EHRS.

Ductless Hoods

Ductless hoods have limited application because of the wide variety of chemicals used in most labs. Ductless hoods require pre-approval from EHRS. The containment collection efficiency and retention for the air cleaning system used in the ductless hood must be evaluated for each hazardous chemical.

Ductless hoods must have signage prominently posted on the outside of the hood to inform operators and maintenance personnel on the allowable chemicals used in the hood, type an limitations of filters in place, filter change out- schedule and that the hood recirculates air into the room.

All Ductless hoods will be certified annually by an outside vendor at the departments or units expense. A certification will be placed on the front of the hood.

  • Hoods- Perchloric /HOT Acid Hoods
    • Heated perchloric\Hot Acids shall only be used in a laboratory hood specifically designed for its use and identified as “For Perchloric\Hot Acid Operations.” (Exception: Hoods not specifically designed for use with perchloric\Hot acid shall be permitted to be used where the vapors are trapped and scrubbed before they are released into the hood.)
    • Perchloric\Hot acid hoods and exhaust duct work shall be constructed of materials that are acid resistant, non-reactive and impervious to perchloric acid, typically 316 stainless steel or unplasticized PVC.
    • The exhaust fan should be acid resistant and spark resistant. The exhaust fan motor should not be located within the duct work. Drive belts should not be located within the duct work
    • Ductwork for perchloric\Hot acid hoods and exhaust systems shall take the shortest and straightest path to the outside of the building and shall not be manifolded with other exhaust systems. Horizontal runs shall be as short as possible, with no sharp turns or bends. The duct work shall provide a positive drainage slope back into the hood. Ducts shall consist of sealed sections. Flexible connectors shall not be used.
    • Sealants, gaskets, and lubricants used with perchlocric\Hot acid hoods, duct work, and exhaust systems shall be acid resistance and non-reactive with perchloric acid.
    • A water spray system shall be provided for washing down the hood interior behind the baffle and the entire exhaust system. The hood work surface shall be watertight with a minimum depression of 13 mm (1/4 inch) at the front and sides. An integral trough shall be provided at the rear of the hood to collect the wash-down water.
    • Spray wash down nozzles shall be installed in the ducts no more than 5 ft apart. The ductwork shall provide a positive slope back into the hood. Ductwork shall consist of sealed sections and no flexible connectors shall be used.
    • The hood surface should have an all welded construction and have accessible rounded corners for cleaning ease.
    • The hood baffle shall be removable for inspection and cleaning.
    • Each perchloric\Hot acid hood must have an individually designated duct and exhaust system.
  • Radioactive Material Use
    • Laboratory hoods in which radioactive materials are handled shall be identified with the radiation hazard symbol
    • Fume hoods intended for use which radioactive isotopes must be constructed of stainless steel or other materials that will not be corroded by the chemicals used in the hood.
    • The interior of all radioisotope hoods must have coved corners to facilitate decontamination.
    • The hood exhaust may require filtration by HEPA or Charcoal HEPA filters. Contact EHRS for additional information.
    • Hood used for radioactivity should have sashes with horizontal sliding glass panels mounted in a vertical sash.
    • The cabinet on which the hood is installed shall be adequate to support shielding for the radioactive materials to be used
  • BIOSAFETY CABINETS ,CLEAN BENCHES & GLOVE BOXES
    • Although chemical hoods, biosafety cabinets and clean benches can look similar, they have very different uses.
      • A chemical hood is designed to contain hazardous vapors and gases and exhaust them outside the building.
      • A clean bench or laminar flow bench is designed to protect biological specimens by bathing the work area with a laminar flow of air free of particulate contamination. Because a clean bench forces air out from the back of the hood, across the work surface and toward the worker it protects only the specimen, not the user. Laminar flow hoods also called clean benches should not be confused with chemical fume hoods. Laminar flow hoods are designed to protect biological specimens and material by bathing the work area with particle free air. The clean benches are not designed to contain hazardous vapors and gasses. As such, flammable and toxic substances must be used in a chemical fume hood, not a laminar flow hood. Clean benches force air out the back of the unit, across the work surface and toward the researcher. The air is re-filtered (of particles only) before being exhausted back into the lab, not to the outside as with a fume hood. Laminar flow hoods will not be used for materials that would not be ordinarily be used on an open bench.
      • All laminar flow hoods will be certified annually by an approved vendor at the department or unit’s expense according to the manufacturer's specifications. A certification label will be placed on the front of the hood.
      • A biosafety cabinet provides biological protection for both specimen and user. A laminar flow of HEPA-filtered air is passed down from the top of the hood and across the work surface, and is exhausted or recirculated without entering a worker’s breathing zone. The air is then re-filtered before being exhausted, usually back into the laboratory. Because all clean benches and most biological safety cabinets exhaust air back into the work area, they cannot safely be used with hazardous gases and vapors. Only Class II Type B2 (total exhaust) Biosafety Cabinets can be used with significant quantities of volatile hazardous chemicals. Please follow the link for additional information on the different types of Biological Safety Cabinets. http://www.cdc.gov/od/ohs/biosfty/bsc/bsc.htm
      • Glove Box -This is a sealed enclosure used to confine and contain hazardous materials with operator access through gloved portals or other limited openings (such as a pass-through chamber). It is not a fume hood, and it is not to be used for storage of volatile chemicals. Glove boxes (positive and negative) must meet the type, design and construction requirements of the l latest edition of ANSI/AIHA z9.5

Hoods- Specially Designed System

These include walk-in hoods or local exhaust capture hoods (sometimes referred to as "elephant trunks").

Walk in Fume hoods must meet the type, design, and construction requirements of the latest edition of ANSI/AIHA z9.5

All hoods, including enclosures for operations for which other types of hoods are not suitable (ex. Enclosures for analytical balances, histology processing machines, special mixing stations, evaporation racks) must meet the requirements of the latest edition of ANSI/AIHA z9.5 and the Industrial Ventilation manual

These types of systems require pre-approval by Facilities Management and EHRS.

Hoods-Construction and Installation

  • All fume hoods shall meet the requirements listed in this document, latest version of ANSI/AIHA z9.5, latest edition of ACGIH Industrial Ventilation: A Manual for recommended practice and the most current codes, guidelines, and standards and any other applicable regulations and recommendations.
  • The fume hood shall be tested prior to leaving the factory and meet the ASHRAE 110- most current Tracer gas test protocol with a rating of 4 AM 0.05. Documentation from the factory is required.
  • A quantitative airflow sensor and an audible and visual alarm shall be permanently installed and located so that the display is visible to the user from the front end of the hood. The alarm must be installed by the fume hood manufacturer. In addition, the alarm shall be calibrated by a qualified person at least annually and whenever damaged.
  • Laboratory hoods shall not have an on/off switch located in the laboratory. Exhaust fans shall run continuously without direct local control from labs.
  • The work surface of the bench is recessed ½ inches or more below the font edge of the bench and the sides and back of the bench are provided with a seamless vertical lip 0.5 inch in height.
  • Variable air volume (VAV) should be used, unless there are sound reasons to not use a VAV hood. In those cases where VAV hoods can not be used, constant air volume hoods with bypass air openings shall be used. All hoods shall be equipped with sash stops on vertical rising sashes allowing the sash height to be set at 18 inches during routine use.
  • Where constant air volume hoods are used, the bypass air opening shall not be uncovered until the sash has been lowered to 2/3 of the full opening height. The opening shall progressively uncover as the sash is lowered to its lowest point.
  • Connections for exhaust ducts should be provided in the walls or roof of the hood behind the adjustable baffles. The connection(s) should have a flow-cross section sized for a velocity of 200 fpm maximum at the rated volume flow of the hood with the front sash wide open and should be located so that the adjustable baffles are effective in attaining uniform face velocity
  • Interior fume hood surfaces shall be rigid, safe, and be constructed of corrosion resistant, non-porous, non-combustible materials appropriate for the intended use.
  • The interiors of hoods shall have smooth and impermeable interior surfaces with rounded corners. Interior surfaces must be free of cracks and crevices to provide for easy cleaning.
  • Laboratory hoods shall be provided with a means of containing minor spills.
  • Prior to installation of a new hood, an adequate supply of make up air must be provided to the lab.
  • A horizontal bottom airfoil inlet at the front of the hood shall be provided.
  • The rear and top interior of the hood shall be furnished with baffles to provide at least two, preferable three, slots. Baffles should be continuous across the back of the fume hood. Externally adjustable baffles shall not be used.
  • Fans should run continuously without local control from hood location and independently of any time clocks
  • Fume hood controls shall be arranged so that the shutting down of one fume hood for maintenance will not reduce the exhaust capacity or create an imbalance between exhaust and supply for any other hood manifolded to the same system.
  • Fume hood exhaust fans shall not be shut down automatically when a smoke alert signal is detected in the supply air system. Consult with Fire Marshall for guidance.
  • Light fixtures should be of the fluorescent type and replaceable for outside the hood. Light fixtures should be displaced or covered by a transparent, impact resistant, vapor tight shield to prevent vapor contact. Hood lighting shall be provided by UL listed fixtures. If located within the hood interior, the fixtures shall meet the requirements of all regulations(ex. NFPA 70 (National Electric Code), IBC, etc..) appropriate to hazardous atmospheres.
  • The valves, electrical outlets and switches for utilities serving hoods shall be placed at readily accessible locations outside the hood. All shutoff valves shall be clearly labeled. Plumbing (ex. Vacuum lines) should exit the sides of the fume hood and not the bench top.
  • Hood electrical switches shall have indicator lights.
  • Hoods shall have an individually trapped sink or cup sink, when needed. Backflow preventions or vacuum breakers shall be sued to protect domestic water supplies. Consult local codes for additional guidance.
  • Drying ovens shall not be placed under fume hoods.
  • Portable non ducted fume hoods, supply or auxiliary hoods are not permitted. Exception shall be reviewed and approved by EHRS

Hoods-Face Velocities

  • The average face velocity of the hood shall produce sufficient capture and containment of hazardous chemicals generated under as used conditions.
  • At a minimum, the average air velocity face of a hood intended for standard use shall be set and maintained according to the manufacturer’s guidelines. No individual face velocity measurement shall be more than plus or minus 20% of the average do not flow of the hood nor shall any one measurement be outside the manufacturers set limits.
  • Face velocity is not to be used as the only performance indicator.

Hoods-Sashes

  • Hoods shall have transparent movable sash constructed of shatter resistant, flame resistant materials and capable of closing the entire front face.
  • Vertical rising sashes are required. If horizontal siding sashes are used, sash panels (horizontal sizing) shall be twelve to fifteen inches in width. Approval by EHRS for horizontal siding sashes is required.
  • A sash lock (swivel lock) that can be disengaged is required at the maximum operating height of 18 inches.
  • A force of five pounds shall be sufficient to move vertical and/or horizontal moving doors and sashes

Hoods- Location

  • Fume hoods should be located away from activities or facilities, which produces air currents or turbulence. It should be located away from high traffic areas, air supply diffusers, doors and operable windows.
  • Fume hoods should not be adjacent to a single means of access to an exit. Recommended that hoods be located more than 10 feet from any door or doorway.
  • Fume hood openings should not be located opposite workstations where personnel will spend much of their working day, such as desks or microscope benches.

Hoods-Casework under Hood

  • A Factory Mutual approved, UL listed flammable liquids storage cabinet in compliance with NFP and OSHA regulations shall be installed under the fume hood.
  • The cabinet shall be vented to the hood plenum. The cabinet shall be equipped with a flash arrester.

Hoods-Labeling

  • Laboratory hoods and special exhaust ventilation systems (SLEV) shall be labeled to indicate intended use( ex. Perchloric Acid Hood)
  • A label must be affixed to each hood containing the following information from the last inspection:
    • Certification due date
    • Average face velocity
    • Inspectors initials

Commissioning and Performance Testing

  • All newly installed, renovated, or relocated ventilation systems (including hoods) shall be commissioned to ensure proper operation prior to use. All ventilation systems must be commissioned according to the requirements listed in the latest edition of ANSI/AIHA Z9.5. A Professional Engineer shall stamp the test reports.
  • Proper operation of fume hoods must be demonstrated by the contractor installing the fume hood or shall be tested by an independent qualified test contractor after installation and meet the test listed in the latest edition of the ASHRAE 110-most current Tracer gas test protocol with a rating of 4 A1 0.1 , Flow Visualization ,Velocity Procedure tests and any additional hood specific test as described in the latest edition of ANSI/AIHA Z9.5.
  • Routine performance test as outlined in the latest edition of ANSI/AIHA z9.5 shall be conducted at least annually or whenever a significant change has been made to the operational characteristics of the hood systems.
  • Flow Measuring Devices for laboratory chemical hoods, air containment monitors, ventilation monitors shall be calibrated at least annually by a qualified person or whenever damaged.
  • The original report must remain on file with Facilities Management. A copy of the report must be forwarded to EHRS and the PI/Department must also retain a copy.
  • Certification of Biosafety Cabinets– Biosafety cabinets should be tested and certified after installation, after relocation and at least annually.
    • A certification sticker must be placed on the outside of each cabinet.
    • Prior to disassembly or relocation the units may need to be decontaminated with gaseous formaldehyde. The National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) has implemented a Biohazards Cabinetry Certification Program at the request of the regulatory community.
    • An NSF Accredited Biohazard Cabinet Field Certifier must perform testing and servicing of biosafety cabinets. A list of Accredited Certifiers is maintained on the NSF Website.
    • For more information about biosafety cabinets or a short list of certification vendors in our region, contact Environmental Health & Radiation Safety at 215-707-2520.
    • Copies of the certification must be forwarded to EHRS

Hood Failure or System Malfunction

  • In the event that an airflow alarm or indicator would signal low or no airflow, or that lab personnel recognized that such a condition exists otherwise, the person first recognizing his problem must
    • Immediately stop all work in the hood
    • If possible, stabilize reactions and turn off equipment(i.e. hot plates) or other electric devices
      • The lab and or building must be evacuated if any process or reactions that could create a hazard to the lab or building occupants exist.
    • Close any opened/exposed containers of hazardous materials (if safe to do so)
    • Close the hood sash
    • Immediately report the problem to Facilities Management, Principal Investigator or Manager and EHRS.
    • Notify others in the area and on additional shifts that the hood is not operating and must not be used.
    • Post a sign on the hood that boldly states that the hood(s) is/are not functioning and may not be used until repairs or corrections have been made and this sign is removed.
    • Do not use the hood until cleared for reuse by Facilities Management and EHRS.

Preventive Maintenance & Repair

  • Only appropriately trained personnel of the Facilities Management Department or their designees shall carry out repairs or preventive maintenance.
  • Preventive maintenance shall be performed on a regularly scheduled basis. Manufacturer recommendations and those additional recommendations listed in the latest edition of AIHA/ANSI z9.5 shall be followed.
  • Facilities Management shall keep a record of any repair or maintenance issue on any hood.
  • Operations served by equipment being shut down for inspection, maintenance or repair shall be safely discontinued and secured during such maintenance.
    • Principal Investigators/Supervisors, EHRS and lab workers shall be notified in advance before work is started by Facilities Management. Facilities Management shall inform the PI/Supervisor or Department Chair when work will begin and an estimated time to completion.
    • Principal Investigators/Supervisors is responsible for ensuring that all employees are informed and understand how the information for the hood shut down will be disseminated. The Department chair must be informed when more than one hood will be shut down.
    • The Principal Investigator/Supervisor/Department Chair shall ensure that all material and toxic or otherwise dangerous material on or in the vicinity of the equipment shall be removed or cleaned.
      • The completed Equipment decontamination form shall be signed and forwarded by the PI to EHRS.
      • EHRS will conduct a visual inspection of the piece of equipment.
      • Additional tests and or decontamination may be required at the requestor’s expense.
      • EHRS will post a sign (See Appendix A) and/or “DO NOT USE” tape along with any other special precautions on the hood.
      • The postings shall not be removed until the PI/Supervisor is informed by EHRS and Facilities Management.
    • Facilities Management\Contractors shall implement any permit plans and or Lock-Out/tag-out procedures
    • Facilities Management Personnel\Contractors shall be trained, provided and required to use appropriate PPE. Minimum PPE required is listed below:
      • Work\Latex\N-Dex Gloves
      • Safety Glasses
      • Tyvek Clothing
      • Additional PPE as required
    • Facilities Management will conduct appropriate performance test (as outlined in the latest edition of AIHA/ANSI z9.5 if any changes or repairs were made that could affect the performance of the hoods.
  • Perchloric Hood/Fan Maintenance
    • Access to the fan and stack shall be posted and retracted (roped or fenced).
    • Maintenance of perchloric hood systems shall be performed by authorized personnel only.
    • All parts of the hood/exhaust system shall be posted (“Perchloric Acid System-Authorized Personnel Only”) to ensure that uncontrolled maintenance does not occur.
    • Complete wash down and decontamination of hood system must be completed prior to any maintenance. Duration and type of wash down will be determined by EHRS.
    • Only non sparking tools shall be used.
    • Use only fluorocarbon grease for the lubrication of the fan.
    • All parts of the system shall be handled carefully (potential explosion from shock or friction from tools)
    • Maintenance /decontamination/dismantling of perchloric hoods shall be done when the building is unoccupied.
    • If used for perchloric acid heated above ambient temperature, test shall, be conducted for explosive perchlorates before any maintenance or cleaning is done on any part of the exhaust system within the airstreams or hood interior.
    • All maintenance personnel working on the perchloric hoods must be trained in the hazards of perhcloric acid.
    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for maintenance personnel who work on Perchloric acid hoods should include:
      • Splash/Impact Goggles
      • Face Shields
      • Gloves(Nitrile, neoprene or PVC)
      • Chemically-resistant coveralls
  • Roof Work
    • Facilities Management will inform the Department(s) in any building that contains hood exhaust(s) that they intend to conduct work on the roof and of the time frame of the work to be conducted.
    • Department Chairs will provide Facilities with all pertinent information as related to hood activities. Certain activities may need to be stopped until work is complete.
    • If the roof work involves airstreams of any part of the hood system, the department chairs and EHRS will be notified.
    • All hoods affected by the work will need to be temporarily taken out of service as described above
  • Removing Hoods from Service
    • The Principal Investigator/Supervisor/Department Chair shall ensure that all material and toxic or otherwise dangerous material on or in the vicinity of the equipment shall be removed or cleaned.
      • The completed Equipment decontamination form shall be signed and forwarded by the PI to EHRS.
      • EHRS will conduct a visual inspection of the piece of equipment.
      • Additional tests and or decontamination may be required at the requestor’s expense.

GUIDELINES FOR MAXIMIZING HOOD SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY

  • Conduct all operations that may generate air contaminants at or above the appropriate Threshold Limit Value inside a hood.
  • Keep all apparatus at least 6 inches back from the face of the hood. A stripe on the bench surface is a good reminder.
  • Users should keep their faces outside the plane of the hood sash.
  • Hood sash openings should be kept to a minimum. Hoods are tested (and should be used) with a hood sash opening of 12 inches.
  • Do not store chemicals or equipment in the hood.
  • Do not use the hood as a waste disposal mechanism
  • Do not store chemicals or apparatus in the hood. Store chemicals in an approved safety storage cabinet.
  • Keep the slots in the hood baffle free of obstruction by apparatus or containers.
  • Minimize foot traffic past the face of the hood to prevent disruptions in air flow.
  • Keep laboratory doors closed when working in the hood.
  • Traps, scrubbers or incinerators should be used to prevent toxic and/or noxious materials from being vented into the hood exhaust system.
  • Do not place electrical receptacles or other spark sources inside the hood when flammable liquids or gases are present. No permanent electrical receptacles are permitted in the hood.
  • Use an appropriate barricade (e.g. a blast shield) if there is a chance of explosion or implosion.
  • Remain alert to changes in air flow.
  • Do not remove hood sash or panels except when necessary for apparatus set-up; replace the sash or panels before operating.
  • Exhaust ports from the hood and supply air vents to the room (Nesbitt units or unit ventilators) should not be blocked.
  • Prepare a plan of action in case of an emergency, e.g., a power failure.

10.7 – Shipping and Transport of Dangerous Goods

Introduction:

Purpose

To establish policies, work practices and systematic procedures for ensuring the safe and efficient shipment and receipt of Dangerous Goods\Hazardous Materials within the University and Health System. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Custom and Border Protection, the US Department of Health and Human Services’ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) all have requirements that influence the shipping of dangerous goods from Temple University and Temple University Health System.

Applicability

Applies to all departments and personnel who ship or receive dangerous goods\hazardous materials at Temple University (TU) and Temple University Health System (TUHS), to all work conducted under the authority of TU and TUHS. Non-Temple and contractor personnel must follow the provision of this document while working at these facilities.

Responsibilities

Environmental Health & Radiation Safety (EHRS)

  • Policy development
  • Training as requested by responsible supervisor, manager or principal investigator
  • Maintain a database of all trained individuals by EHRS
  • Provide technical assistance and support as requested by a responsible supervisor, manager or principal investigator

Supervisors, Principal Investigator (PI) Department Heads & Managers

  • Assess their site and operations areas to determine whether any materials are offered for shipment, prepared or received that falls under the Dangerous Goods, Hazardous Materials definition;
  • Ensure that all employees identified as shipping or receiving personnel attend required training (as listed in the training section) and follow the requirements listed in this document as well as department/hospital specific policies;
  • Maintain all necessary documentation and training certificates;
  • Provide appropriate stock of required supplies (shipping containers, forms, etc...) and personal protective equipment (PPE); and
  • Provide function specific training regarding the safe use, preparation, administration, storage, transportation on shipping or receiving of Dangerous Good or Hazardous Materials. Training must be documented and filed.

Employees who Ship, Offer, Prepare or Receive Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials

  • Attend required training classes prior to shipping;
  • Use and maintain safety devices and PPE;
  • Follow the instructions of the Supervisor, Principal Investigator, Department Head, Manager and EHRS;
  • Comply with the requirements listed in this document;
  • Know who to call in any incident involving Dangerous Goods or Hazardous Materials and how to handle spills, releases and personal contamination and exposure; and
  • Obtain additional information regarding safety, security, inventory and risk of operations as is necessary to fully be informed regarding ones duties and to accurately assess any health related risk.

DEFINITIONS:

  • Dangerous Goods- hazardous chemicals or infectious substances that are capable of posing significant a significant risk to health, safety, or to property when transported.
  • Hazardous material- means a substance or material that the Secretary of Transportation has determined is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and has designated as hazardous under section 5103 of Federal hazardous materials transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5103). The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine pollutants, elevated temperature materials, materials designated as hazardous in the Hazardous Materials Table (see 49 CFR 172.101 ), and materials that meet the defining criteria for hazard classes and divisions in part 173 of subchapter C of this chapter.

Examples of Hazardous materials:

Class Or Division #

Name of Class or Division

49 CFR Reference

1.1 to 1.6

Explosives

173.50

2.1 to 2.3

Compressed Gases (including liquefied gases)

173.115

3

Flammable (including combustible) liquids ( i.e. Alcohols, solvents, lubricants, paints)

173.120

4.1 to 4.3

Solids that are flammable, spontaneously combustible, or dangerous when wet (i.e. Lithium alkyds, naphthalene, phosphors, calcium hydride, sodium)

173.124

5.1 and 5.2

Oxidizers and organic peroxides ( i.e. bromates, chlorates, permanganates, hydrogen peroxide, benzoyl peroxide)

173.127 and 173.128

6.1

Poisonous ( i.e. some pesticides, barium compounds, phenol, chloroform)

173.132

6.2

Infectious substances (i.e. cultures and stocks, biological products, and toxins that are derived from plant, animal or bacterial sources and contain or might contain an infectious substance)

173.134

7

Radioactive

173.403

8

Corrosives (acids or bases which are corrosive to the skin and other materials having a pH of ≤ 5.5 or ≥ 11.0)

173.136

9

Miscellaneous hazardous materials (i.e. asbestos, dry ice, PCB’s)

173.140

Forbidden

Forbidden Materials

173.21

Note: A material is regulated as a Class 9 environmental hazardous substance if it meets the definition of either hazardous substance or marine pollutant and is not listed in the Hazardous Materials Table nor meets a specific hazard class.

In addition to DOT regulations, the transportation of hazardous materials is also regulated by the International Air Transportation Association (IATA). Also, may carrier also have requirements for transportation hazardous materials?

  • Dry Ice- Dry ice is considered by DOT and IATA as “miscellaneous” hazard, class 9. Dry ice is considered hazardous during transportation.
  • Operator/Carrier – are individuals, courier companies (ex. UPS, FedEx) or airlines that transport packages from point of origin to point of destination.
  • Shipper(Consignor)- one who offers Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials for transport
  • Receiver (Consignee)- one who receives and signs for packages
  • Proper Shipping Name- used to describe a particular article or substance in all shipping documents and where appropriate, on packaging.
  • UN number- is of four digits assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods to identify a substance or a particular group of substances.
  • Shipper Declaration Form- legal document signed by the shipper which creates a contracted between the shipper and the carrier.
  • Category A Infectious Substances - An infectious substance in a form capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals upon exposure.
    • Infectious substances also include pathogens present in a list published both by DOT and ICAO/IATA. These substances include;
      • Cultures of pathogens which can cause permanent disability or fatal disease. Examples include; Bacillus anthracis (cultures only) and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (cultures only).
      • Known pathogens capable of causing permanent disability or fatal disease if exposed to any amount. Examples include; Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Smallpox virus.

Determination that a substance may be a Category A Infectious Substance is based on a combination of the pathogens on the list and upon the shipper’s scientific or medical knowledge.

  • Biological Substances, Category B - An infectious substance that is not in a form generally capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals.
  • Biological Products - are those products derived from living organisms that are manufactured and distributed in accordance with the requirements of national governmental authorities that may have special licensing requirements. They are used for prevention, treatment, or diagnosis of disease in humans or animals, or for development, experimental or investigational purposes related thereto. They include, but are not limited to, finished or unfinished products such as vaccines and diagnostic products.
  • Click here for a complete listing of the Department of Transportation Definitions

Training

The responsibility to ensure that training is provided, whether to reinstate current employees or to instruct new employees, falls upon the department, PI or group. Supervisors, Managers and PI’s are responsible to see that the training of employees is received and should contact EHRS to make arrangements for training.’

Specific training for shipper (consigner)

Individuals who offer Dangerous Goods, Hazardous Materials and dry ice for transport must attend the following training

  • Dangerous Goods, Hazardous Materials and dry ice for transportation training and must become certified by attending the specified training prior to any shipment.
  • Security Awareness Training - employee must receive training that provides an awareness of security risks associated with hazardous materials transportation and methods designed to enhance transportation security.
  • Function Specific training-Specific training as it applies to their job duties
  • Safety Training- Basic safety training/Hazard Communication on emergency response to incident, PPE, bloodborne pathogen, etc...
  • General Awareness/familiarization Training-familiarity with the requirements of the all applicable regulations
  • In depth security training- employees must be trained concerning the security plan and its implementation. Security training must include company security objectives, specific security procedures, employee responsibilities, actions to take in the event of a security breach and the organizational security structure.
  • Refresher training- all employee must also attend refresher training every two years, if there is change in job duties or change in regulations.
  • EHRS will determine the needs for training and provide these training as requested accordingly.
  • Upon completion of the required course, participants will receive a training certificate to be maintained by their respective departments.

Specific training for receiver (consignee)

Individuals who receive or sign the receiving paper for Dangerous Goods, Hazardous Materials and dry ice must attend the following training

  • Safety Training- Basic safety training/Hazard Communication on emergency response to incident, PPE, bloodborne pathogen, etc...
  • Security Awareness Training - employee must receive training that provides an awareness of security risks associated with hazardous materials transportation and methods designed to enhance transportation security.
  • Refresher training- all employee must also attend refresher training every three years, if there is change in job duties or change in regulations.
  • EHRS will determine the needs for training and provide these training as requested accordingly.

Packaging and Shipping

  • Departments Head, Supervisors, Manager or PI’s are responsible to ensure that all Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials are packaged, shipped and received in compliance with the regulations. Detailed information’s will be provided in training.
  • Departments Heads, Supervisors, Managers or PI’s are responsible for obtaining the proper materials necessary to ship Dangerous Goods/Hazardous Materials in compliance with the regulations.
  • Departments Heads, Supervisors, Managers or PI’s are responsible to ensure that EHRS is notified whenever a Dangerous Good/Hazardous Materials is shipped. EHRS has implemented and electronic notification system. Simply complete Notification of Dangerous Goods form and submit electronically.

Recordkeeping

  • Departments are responsible for keeping all shipping documents and training certificates on file for three years.
  • EHRS will maintain a database of all employees trained