Dissertation & Thesis Handbook

The Handbook - Arrangement of Contents: Back Matter


         TOPICS KEY
Bibliography/References Cited


Bibliography/References Cited

  • A comprehensive list of sources must be titled either "Bibliography" or "References Cited." A template for the source list is included in Appendix J.
  • All books, articles, or other sources used in the manuscript, either in direct quotation or by reference, must be listed.
    • Citations in the text must correspond to those listed in the comprehensive source list.
    • Authors' names must be spelled correctly and, hence, consistently.
    • Dates that appear in the text should be the same as those listed in the comprehensive source list.
  • In-text citations, source citations, references, and notes may be ONE of the following:
    • Parenthetical author-date (see the example below)
    • Superscripted or bracketed numbers
    • Classic footnotes at the bottom of the page
    • Endnotes at the end of each chapter
    • Endnotes at the end of the entire work
In text As noted in the research (Huggard, 1998), the goal was...
In Bibliography/Reference Cited

Huggard, C. (1998). Clinical efficacy of dexamethasone
            iontophoresis in the treatment of patellar
            tendonitis in collegiate athletics: A double-blind
            study. Unpublished master's thesis, Temple
            University. Philadelphia, PA.

  • Ordering within the list of sources varies by discipline:

    • Works in education, the humanities, and the social sciences are alphabetically ordered by author's family name, which begins each entry.
    • Works in the hard sciences are usually ordered numerically.
  • Two spacing options exist:
    • Single space within individual entries and double space between
    • Double space within and between entries
  • Two indentation options exist:
    • With hanging indentation, the first line of every entry is on the left margin and every turnover line is indented 1/2".
    • With paragraph indentation, the first line is indented 1/2" from the left margin and the turnover lines are at the left margin.
  • Page numbers continue consecutive Arabic pagination of the text.



  • Appendices contain supplementary material or explanatory data too lengthy to be included in the text or not immediately essential to the reader's understanding of the text. To determine whether to include material as an Appendix, consider:
    • Does the material truly need to be included? That is, does it add to the understanding of your research?
    • Is the author's written permission needed to include it? That is, is it copyrighted?
    • Does it fit Temple University's margin, clarity, and type requirements — or do you have to retype it?  For example, letterhead cannot be included without adjustment.
    • Have you made reference to the material in the text? No material can be included as an Appendix if it is not referred to in the text.
  • Appendixes are designated by capital letters (e.g., A, B, C); are lettered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text; and are listed in the Table of Contents as level five headings, fully CAPITALIZED with their Appendix letter on the left margin directly under the "A" in Appendix. See the sample Table of Contents in Appendix C.
  • Each Appendix is titled with a centered level five heading "APPENDIX ___" followed on the next line by its title in ALL CAPITAL letters. These are positioned at the top of the first page of each new Appendix like a Chapter title.
  • Original material in an Appendix must be double-spaced and typed the same as all other text. Copies of correspondence, forms, computer programs, printed questionnaires, surveys, testing instruments, etc. may be included in their original format ONLY if they adhere to the established margins (i.e., 1.5" on the left side and 1" on all other sides), print size, and quality specifications. It is not important that the "original" document be included, but it is important that included documents be readable. Material that will not fit or is difficult to read must be reduced, recopied, retyped, or removed. Letterhead must be either cut-and-pasted or retyped.
  • Appendices follow the Bibliography/References Cited section.
  • Page numbers continue consecutive Arabic pagination of the text. This applies to both new and previously paginated materials that you include.
  • A template for Appendices is included in Appendix K.