Research / Themes / Space and place / Street crimes in space and time

Opportunity theories of crime have highlighted the benefits of a shift in focus from the criminal motivation of people to the contexts in which crime events occur. However, testing of these theories has been handicapped by a lack of micro-level data and modeling tools that can capture the dynamic interactions of individuals and the context in which they occur. This research explores a new methodology for testing theory that draws upon extant theory and empirical research to develop individually-based simulation models. Three versions of a street robbery model are created based on routine activity theory and empirical research and implemented in Agent Analyst software. Each version adds a degree of complexity to the basic model (i.e., first temporal and then spatio-temporal constraints).


Related faculty

Elizabeth Groff


Selected publications

Groff, ER (2008) Adding the temporal and spatial aspects of routine activities: A further test of routine activity theory. Security Journal, Volume 21:95-116.


Groff, ER (2007) Simulation for theory testing and experimentation: An example using routine activity theory and street robbery." Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Volume 23:75-103.


Groff, ER (2007) 'Situating' simulation to model human spatio-temporal interactions: An example using crime events, Transactions in GIS, Volume 11:507-530.