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STRATEGIC VISIONS

NEWSLETTER OF THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF FORCE AND DIPLOMACY AT TEMPLE UNIVERSITY (CENFAD)


Volume 5               Spring 2004                 Number 1


CENFAD CO-FOUNDER RUSSELL F. WEIGLEY DEAD AT 73

            Dr. Russell F. Weigley, Distinguished University Professor of History (emeritus) at Temple University, co-founder of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, and one of the world's foremost military historians, died of heart failure at his Center City home in Philadelphia on Wednesday, March 3, 2004.  He was seventy-three.

            Weigley's passing came as a shock to his friends and colleagues, as well as his many current and former students.  Despite the fact that he retired in 1998, he remained active as both a historian and a public servant.  He taught a graduate course in military history each semester at Temple and was guiding the last of his doctoral students through their dissertations. In 2000, he published a prize-winning book on the American Civil War.  He sat on the advisory board that recommended Theodore Roosevelt should receive the Medal of Honor for heroism in the Spanish-American War.  Weigley was also the only historian on the panel that selected the design for the National World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C.  In the days immediately preceding his death, he participated in the planning charette sponsored by the American Battle Monuments Commission for the new memorial and museum to be erected near Omaha Beach in Normandy, France, to commemorate American participation in Operation OVERLORD.


Russell F. Weigley (at right) welcomed his former student, Dr. Phyllis A. Zimmerman of Ball State
University (second from right), to Temple on October 21, 2003, when she spoke about her
forthcoming biography of Marine raider Evans F. Carlson.  Also in attendance were Dr. Gregory
J. W. Urwin (left) and doctoral student David J. Ulbrich (second from left).


            Russell Frank Weigley was born in Reading, Pennsylvania on July 2, 1930. He developed an early interest in history, fueled in part by his family's annual outings to the Civil War battlefield at Gettysburg. He earned a B.A. in history from Albright College in 1952. He entered graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied under the Pulitzer-Prize winning historian, Roy F. Nichols. Weigley received his M.A. in 1953 and his Ph.D. in 1956.

            Weigley came to Temple University as an associate professor in 1962. Promotion to professor followed in 1966, and Temple recognized his eminence in the historical profession by naming him Distinguished University Professor of History in 1985.

            By that time, Weigley had established himself as a leading figure in American military history by writing six landmark books - Quartermaster General of the Union Army: A Biography of M. C. Meigs (1959), Towards an American Army: Military Thought from Washington to Marshall (1962), The History of the United States Army (1967), The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy (1973), and Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944-1945 (1983). He also edited The American Military: Readings in the History of the Military in American Society (1969), New Dimensions in Military History: An Anthology (1975), and Philadelphia: A 300 Year History (1982).

            In 1991, Weigley proved that his range reached far beyond American military affairs when he published The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo. This volume won the 1992 Distinguished Book Award from the Society for Military History for a work in non-American history. Weigley's last book, A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861-1865, which appeared in 2000, netted the coveted Lincoln Prize. At the time of his death, Weigley was working on a command history of the Battle of Gettysburg. He also intended to follow up The Age of Battles with two more volumes on the evolution of modern warfare.

            In addition to his books, Weigley published numerous articles, essays, encyclopedia entries, and pamphlets. He delivered invited lectures at a long list of colleges and universities, including America's service academies and military postgraduate schools.

            A mere recitation of Weigley's many achievements - impressive though they were - hardly begins to take the measure of the man. The History of the United States Army, a monumental institutional history in Macmillan's Wars of the United States series, was Weigley's breakout book, advancing him to the front rank of American military historians just eleven years after he received his doctorate. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy, which reflected Weigley's outrage over his country's strategic blundering in Vietnam, turned him into an international figure. It has stayed in print for more than three decades and ranks as his most influential book.  Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944-1945 was one of five finalists for the American Book Award in history in 1983.

            In addition to meticulous research, compelling arguments, and crisp, graceful prose, Weigley's writings were permeated by a strong moral element. Though fascinated by all aspects of soldiering, he did not romanticize war.  "Armies," he once told a classroom full of shocked undergraduates, "are simply state-organized instruments of mass murder."  He evoked the tragedy of war with heartfelt eloquence in the introduction to A Great Civil War: "The battleground of Gettysburg offers the bright face of a vacation destination at warm noontime, but there is always a chill in the air nevertheless, and at dawn or dusk the emanations from too much violence, suffering, and killing become palpable.  I have been surprised alone by an abrupt November nightfall at the Devil's Den; I know the ghosts."

            It is arguable whether Weigley had more impact as a scholar or as a teacher.  He touched the minds of thousands of undergraduates in his popular courses on the United States at War, Civil War and Reconstruction, World War I, and World War II.  He also produced a long line of Ph.D.s in military history, many of whom published the dissertations that they wrote under his direction.

            It was Weigley's standing as a scholar that transformed Temple University into one of the world's leading institutions for studying military history. His reputation attracted applications from numerous students who were eager to work with him.  Those admitted to the History Department's graduate program found him a wise, supportive, and demanding mentor.  In 1992, Weigley joined with diplomatic historian Richard H. Immerman to found the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University (CENFAD).  Among its many missions, CENFAD is dedicated to perpetuating the Weigley legacy.

            Weigley is survived by his wife of forty years, Emma Seifrit Weigley; his son, Jared, and his daughter, Catherine.

            Memorial donations may be sent to the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, Department of History, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, 913 Gladfelter Hall (025-24), 1115 W. Berks Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122-6089.  Checks should be made out to "Temple University," with "Russell F. Weigley" written on the memo line.


CENFAD ANNUAL LECTURE ADDRESSES OIL, WMDs, AND MIDEAST CONFLICT



            On Friday, April 23, the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy will welcome Dr. Michael T. Klare to Temple University's Main Campus to deliver the Center's Annual Lecture.  Klare's lecture, "Oil, WMDs, and Conflict in the Middle East," will be presented in Anderson Hall, Room 17, at 1:30 P.M.  Attendance is free and open to the public.  In view of the timely nature of Klare's topic, a large turnout is expected.

            Dr. Klare is Five College Professor of Peace and World Security Studies at Hampshire College in Massachusetts.  He also directs the Five College Program in Peace and World Security Studies.  Klare has published prolifically on issues of national and international security.  His numerous books include Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America's Growing Petroleum Dependency (in press, 2004), Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict (2001), Rogue States and Nuclear Outlaws (1995), and, as coeditor, World Security: Challenges for a New Century (3rd edition, 1998). Klare is also a frequent contributor to such periodicals as The Nation and Foreign Affairs.


(Left) Dr. Michael T. Klare


            Klare's latest book, Blood and Oil, expands upon the central arguments of his highly successful Resource Wars.  According to Klare, post-Cold War conflict will center on the struggle for various scarce natural resources, including water, energy (oil and gas), and minerals. "Resource wars will become, in the years ahead, the most distinctive feature of the global security environment."  Oil represents the most critical resource of the twenty-first century, particularly to the United States.  As American dependency on foreign oil increases, American reliance on unstable and often anti-American states will also increase.  Such a scenario will ultimately lead to recurrent military involvement, which prompts Klare to caution that the United States must find alternative energy sources.

            In his 1995 work, Rogue States and Nuclear Outlaws, Klare directed his attention to national security strategy in the post-Cold War era.  He asserted that, in the absence of the Soviet menace, the United States military had exaggerated particular threats, so-called "rogue states," in order to justify continued Cold War levels of military spending.  Such efforts diverted resources away from what Klare considered more important national security initiatives, such as international peacekeeping and reducing global violence.  To many defense analysts, the first Gulf War justified levels of military spending on a par with the 1980s.  Klare called on defense policymakers to eliminate the two-war strategy, that is, the idea that the United States may have to fight two simultaneous wars against rogue states like North Korea and Iran (or Iraq, again).  Klare argued instead that a focus on international peacekeeping and the causes of global violence would help thwart unconventional threats to American security, such as that posed by terrorism.

            The proliferation of small arms as a national security issue in both the Cold War and post-Cold War eras has also occupied much of Professor Klare's attention.  His works on this issue includes American Arms Supermarket (1984), Light Weapons and Civil Conflict: Controlling the Tools of Violence (1999), and A Scourge of Guns (1996).  This topic particularly concerns CENFAD.  The Center's new research initiative focuses on the startling numbers of civilian casualties within societies engaged in armed conflict.


 

U.S. Marines on peacekeeping duty in Port au Prince, Haiti, March 9, 2004.  Michael T. Klare argues
that an emphasis on international peacekeeping  and the causes of global violence would do more
to preserve American security than preemptive wars.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)


            CENFAD has developed a project that examines the relationship between small arms proliferation and civilian casualties since the end of the Vietnam War.  The project utilizes various case studies of armed societies to determine how particular local, national, regional, and international restraints influence the use of small arms and its effects on civilian populations.  In light of Professor Klare's proven expertise in this issue, CENFAD looks forward to his visit with great eagerness.


CENFAD DIRECTOR NAMED DISTINGUISHED FACULTY FELLOW

            Dr. Richard H. Immerman, the chair of Temple University's History Department and director of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, has been named the Edward J. Buthusiem Family Distinguished Faculty Fellow in History.  This honor comes in recognition of Immerman's scholarly achievements as a historian.  In announcing the bestowal of the fellowship, Dr. Susan Herbst, Dean of Temple's College of Liberal Arts (CLA), called Immerman "a leader of our College, but also a model for us all, as we strive to make Temple an internationally prominent center for academic excellence."

            Immerman has been a professor in Temple's History Department since 1992.  He received a B.A. in government from Cornell University in 1971, an M.A. in U.S. history from Boston College in 1973, and a Ph.D. in U.S. diplomatic history from Boston College in 1979.  He began his academic career as a teaching fellow and then an instructor in Boston College's History Department from 1974 to 1977.  He served as the associate director of the Presidency Studies Program at Princeton University from 1978 to 1981 and also taught political science as an adjunct professor at Rutgers University.  Following one year as a visiting assistant professor at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Immerman joined the Department of History at the University of Hawaii as an assistant professor in 1982.  A promotion to associate professor came in 1984, followed by elevation to the rank of professor in 1990. Two years later, Immerman relocated to Philadelphia and Temple University.

            Immerman is the author of The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention (1982) and John Foster Dulles: Piety, Pragmatism, and Power in U.S. Foreign Policy (1999).  He edited John Foster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War: A Reappraisal (1990).  He co-authored Milton S. Eisenhower: Portrait of an Educational Statesmen with Stephen E. Ambrose (1983) and Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy with Robert R. Bowie (1998).  Immerman also produced Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment in collaboration with Stephen E. Ambrose (1981) and How Presidents Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965 in collaboration with John Burke, Fred I. Greenstein, and Larry Berman (1989).  Immerman is currently co-authoring The CIA: A Comprehensive Reference.

            Immerman is the author of thirty scholarly articles, chapters, and encyclopedia entries.  His work has appeared in such distinguished journals as the Journal of American History, Diplomatic History, and Political Science Quarterly. Several of his journal articles have been reprinted in essay collections.  He has also published numerous book reviews in a wide variety of scholarly journals.

After Immerman came to Temple, he joined with Professor Russell F. Weigley in establishing the Center for the Study of Force of Diplomacy (CENFAD).  He has served as CENFAD's director since its founding. Immerman has filled many service roles in a wide range of professional organizations, and he has been a prominent member of many committees that have assisted in the governance of Temple University.

            Among Immerman's many awards and honors are the 1983 Stuart Bernath Book Prize from the Society of Historians of American Foreign Relations for The CIA in Guatemala: The Foreign Policy of Intervention; the 1987-89 SSRC-MacArthur Fellowship in International Peace and Security Studies; the 1990 Richard Neustadt Book Award from the American Political Science Association for How Presidents Test Reality: Decisions on Vietnam, 1954 and 1965; the 1990 Stuart Bernath Lecture Prize for Excellence in Research and Teaching from the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations; a 1995 National Endowment for the Humanities Media Projects Grant; and the 1997-98 Paul W. Eberman Faculty Research Award from Temple University.

            The Edward J. Buthusiem Family Distinguished Term Faculty Fellowship in History was established by a generous gift to Temple's College of Liberal Arts from Edward and Stephanie Buthusiem.

            Edward J. Buthusiem graduated from Temple University in 1982 magna cum laude with a B.A. in history.  He earned a Law degree with honors from the University of Pennsylvania in 1985.  He practiced law in New York and Washington, D.C., and then joined SmithKline Beecham in 1990 as a legal transactional specialist.  In the latter capacity, Buthusiem dealt with structuring and negotiating global joint ventures, technology licensing, strategic commercial alliances, and mergers and acquisitions.  After the merger of SmithKline Beecham and GlaxoWellcome as GlaxoSmithKline in 2001, Buthusiem became the consolidated firm's senior vice president of R&D Legal Operations & Biologicals.

            A loyal Temple alumnus, Buthusiem sits as the vice chair of the newly formed Board of Visitors for the College of Liberal Arts.  Last spring, CLA presented Buthusiem with the Diamond Achievement Award, which is reserved for successful graduates who stand as role models to remind current Temple students that a liberal arts degree can form the foundation for almost any kind of successful career.

            In establishing the fellowship that bears his name, Buthusiem said: "It is with great honor that I establish The Edward J. Buthusiem Family Distinguished Term Faculty Fellowship in History. Providing support for faculty research and scholarship, while designating this gift to History, a subject of great interest to me, is quite rewarding.  Honoring Richard Immerman, chair of the history department and a prominent scholar in history, makes it all the more meaningful.  I believe that we, as alumni, should give back in whatever way we can to Temple, and it is in that light that I am proud to establish this Fellowship."


URWIN PUBLISHES CONTROVERSIAL BLACK FLAG OVER DIXIE

            Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history and associate director of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, challenges the sentimentalized way most Americans prefer to remember the bloodiest war in their country's history with an edited volume titled Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War.  The book was published in January 2004 by Southern Illinois University Press.

            Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War highlights the central role that race played in the Civil War by examining some of the ugliest incidents that played out on its battlefields.  Challenging the American public's perception of the Civil War as a chivalrous family quarrel, twelve rising and prominent historians show the conflict to be a wrenching social revolution whose bloody excesses were exacerbated by racial hatred.

            This compelling volume focuses on the tendency of Confederate troops to murder black Union soldiers and runaway slaves and divulges the details of black retaliation and the resulting cycle of fear and violence that poisoned race relations during Reconstruction.  In a powerful introduction to the collection, Urwin reminds readers that the Civil War was both a social and a racial revolution.  As the heirs and defenders of a slave society's ideology, Confederates considered African Americans to be savages who were incapable of waging war in a civilized fashion.  Ironically, this conviction caused white Southerners to behave savagely themselves.  Under the threat of Union retaliation, the Confederate government backed away from failing to treat the white officers and black enlisted men of the United States Colored Troops as legitimate combatants.  Nevertheless, many Rebel commands adopted a no-prisoners policy in the field.  When the Union's black defenders responded in kind, the Civil War descended to a level of inhumanity that most Americans prefer to forget.

            In addition to covering the war's most notorious massacres at Olustee, Fort Pillow, Poison Spring, and the Crater, Black Flag over Dixie examines the responses of Union soldiers and politicians to these disturbing and unpleasant events, as well as the military, legal, and moral considerations that sometimes deterred Confederates from killing all black Federals who fell into their hands.  Twenty photographs and a map of massacre and reprisal sites accompany the volume.

            The contributors to Black Flag over Dixie are Urwin, Anne J. Bailey, the late Howard C. Westwood, James G. Hollandsworth, Jr., David J. Coles, Albert Castel, Derek W. Frisby, Weymouth T. Jordan, Jr., Gerald W. Thomas, Bryce A. Suderow, Chad L. Williams, and Mark Grimsley.

            Urwin credited his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy for providing much of the inspiration for Black Flag over Dixie.  As he wrote in the book's preface: "Over the past two years, the historians and political scientists associated with CENFAD have launched an exciting new initiative to define guidelines and processes that might help reduce the cost of war.  Discussions regarding civilian immunity and casualty aversion have stimulated my thinking about the role race has played in making American wars more barbaric.  I hope this book and the essays it contains will contribute to that dialogue.  Whether they do or not, I am confident that the efforts of CENFAD will stimulate a broad reexamination of the ethics of modern warfare."

            Urwin has harbored a long-standing interest in African-American troops in the Civil War.  In 1988-89, he served as a historical consultant and a "troop trainer" for the Oscar-winning film, Glory, which tells the story of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the Union Army's most famous black regiment.  Urwin appeared in Glory as one of the 54th's white officers.  He wrote introductions for two different paperback reprint editions of Luis F. Emilio's 1894 classic, A Brave Black Regiment: The History of the Fifty-Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry,1863-1865.  Urwin's 1996 article in Civil War History, "'We Cannot Treat Negroes . . . as Prisoners of War': Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War," won the Harold L. Peterson Award from the Eastern National Park and Museum Association as the best article in military history published in that year.  Urwin also contributed a chapter titled "Poison Spring and Jenkins' Ferry: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Camden Expedition," to "All Cut to Pieces and Gone to Hell": The Civil War, Race Relations, and the Battle of Poison Spring, edited by Mark K. Christ.


9/11 AT THE PENTAGON: SERVICE CULTURE AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE

            The race to document and interpret the unforgettable events of September 11, 2001, has begun.  On February 9, 2004, the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy sponsored a lecture by Dr. Randy Papadopolous, a major participant in that effort.  Titled "Who Is a Civilian Anyway?: Civil-Military Relations in the Emergency Response at the Pentagon, 11 September 2001," Papadopolous' presentation introduced the CENFAD and Temple University communities to the findings of his forthcoming book, One Long and Tragic Day: The Attack on the Pentagon, 11 September 2001, a detailed analysis of the airliner attack on the Pentagon and the subsequent efforts of various emergency response personnel to save lives. 


The westward facing wall of the Pentagon where Flight 77 struck.  This photograph was taken on
September 14, 2001. (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)


            A historian at the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C., Dr. Papadopolous was assigned the task of chronicling al Qaeda's attack on the Pentagon only months after that historic incident.  To accomplish this mission, the Naval Historical Center provided Papadopolous with dozens of research assistants and innumerable crucial documents, which included transcripts of interviews with Pentagon employees and other eyewitnesses.  Such oral history techniques are an essential element in documenting an event that occurs within living memory.

            Flight 77's crash and the almost simultaneous explosion of six to twelve tons of jet fuel killed 184 people, both on the plane and in the Pentagon.  More than 3,000 rescuers formally responded in the initial hours of the crisis, and hundreds of others informally volunteered their energy and support.  Dr. Papadopolous' discussion focused on these responders, both official and unofficial, and the problems that arose as they met amid scenes of chaos and tragedy.  What made the situation so unique was the interaction of civilian employees of the Department of Defense, military personnel, FBI agents, and rescue professionals. 

            Dr. Papadopolous argued that the unprecedented nature of the attack left various organizations unprepared to cooperate efficiently with each other in the rescue effort.  This "friction" stemmed from the ways in which the representative institutional cultures, particularly those of the military and professional rescuers, defined their own responsibilities as protectors and the roles of all other individuals present as victims.  Disputes resulted at all levels between the FBI, the military, and emergency response professionals over who was responsible for directing and carrying out rescue operations.  Further complicating the situation was the fact that state and local officials were responding to a disaster on federal land, which caused additional friction over jurisdictional issues.  Virtually all involved asserted their own authority.



(Right) Rescue workers at the Pentagon take a brief rest, September 15, 2001.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)


            In the face of such uncertainty, military professionals habituated to respecting lawful authority succumbed to the temptation to disobey orders in order to contribute to the rescue effort.  Papadopolous recounted several heroic episodes, such as the story of a general who reentered the smoke-filled building only after sneaking by several distracted guards who had previously denied him access.  This leads the inquirer to wonder why so many people would disobey orders.  Papadopolous attributed this rebellious behavior to "institutional self-image."  Even with explicit orders to stay out of the damaged building and allow civilian emergency professionals to handle the situation, many military personnel disobeyed because they saw themselves as rescuers as well; they were quite confident that their training warranted a proactive response to the situation.  Asking the military personnel present to give way to civilians, Papadopolous believes, was akin to ordering them to abandon their fellow soldiers on the battlefield.  Both perception and identity played central roles in the emergency response at the Pentagon.

            Aside from detailing the minute-by-minute events on the ground, Papadopolous also included several policy recommendations for future crises.  He emphasized cooperative planning between various civilian and military agencies as the most important lesson to be learned from the Pentagon on 9/11.  Civilian and military personnel should be allowed and encouraged to train with each other.  This would clearly delineate chains of command for future emergencies.  Furthermore, such training would give civilian personnel a clearer insight into the institutional culture and self-image of the military, and vice versa.  When questioned about the broader implications of implementing such changes, Papadopolous suggested that coordinated planning could take place at the lowest levels of emergency response, such as among the numerous port authorities along the American coasts.


Strategic Visions: Newsletter of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University.

Editor: Gregory J. W. Urwin

Co-Editor of Internet Edition: Andrew McKevitt

Contributors: Richard H. Immerman, Jay Lockenour, Regina Gramer, Andrew McKevitt, David J. Ulbrich

Strategic Visions is published twice a year by the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, Department of History, Temple University.  CENFAD was founded in 1992 by Drs. Russell F. Weigley and Richard H. Immerman.  The Center promotes research and sponsors programs designed to construct new theories of statecraft and illuminate the process whereby force and diplomacy are orchestrated to produce peace and security.  Address all comments, news, and other correspondence to the editor, Gregory J. W. Urwin, Department of History, Temple University, Gladfelter Hall (025-24), 1115 West Berks Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Phone: 215- 204-3809.  E-Mail: gurwin@.temple.edu. 


NEWS FROM CENFAD FACULTY

Jay Lockenour, associate professor of history and associate director of CENFAD, will appear in an upcoming Eyelight Pictures/Daring Productions documentary, "In the Shadows of War," to air on the History Channel.  Based on the book of the same title by Thomas Childers, "In the Shadows of War," is the story of Philadelphia native, the late Roy Allen, an American B-17 pilot shot down over France in 1944.  Allen was hidden for months by the French resistance, but was finally captured by the Gestapo.  He suffered torture at the Gestapo prison in Paris, survived months at the notorious Buchenwald concentration camp, and endured forced marches in the final days of the war before being liberated from a POW camp outside Munich on April 29, 1945.

Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history and associate director of CENFAD, edited a new essay collection released in January 2004 by Southern Illinois University Press, Black Flag over Dixie: Racial Atrocities and Reprisals in the Civil War.  Urwin also published a scholarly introduction in a new prisoner-of-war memoir released by University of Oklahoma Press, Bataan: A Survivor's Story by Gene P. Boyt and David L. Burch.

            Urwin spoke about "Warfare, Race, and the Civil War in American Memory" at the February meeting of the Y-Club at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia.

            Urwin has been tapped for an additional appearance on the History Channel.  Screaming Flea Productions engaged him to serve as the historical consultant for a new documentary on General George Washington's crossing of the Delaware on December 25-26, 1776, and the subsequent American victory at the Battle of Trenton.  This program is part of a new series called "Tech Effect." Urwin's 1997 book, Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island, was turned into a two-hour documentary special, "Wake Island, Alamo of the Pacific," which premiered on the History Channel on June 2, 2003.  Urwin discussed his involvement in making that documentary in a special showing on Temple's main campus sponsored by the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy on February 17, 2004.

            Actuality Productions, the company responsible for the History Channel's "Modern Marvels" series, asked Urwin to assist with an episode covering the technology of D Day, which will air on June 6, 2004, the sixtieth anniversary of the Normandy invasion during World War II.  Urwin participated in some pre-production work, but he declined to be interviewed for the program to devote more time to his own research.

            Urwin flew cross country to lecture more than 100 members of the Civil War Round Table of St. Louis on "'A Very Disastrous Defeat': The Battle of Helena, Arkansas, July 4, 1863" on March 24, 2004.

            Finally, Urwin spent the 2004 spring semester on a research and study leave (sabbatical), devoting most of that precious time to writing his current monograph, "Victory in Defeat: The Defenders of Wake Island as Prisoners of War, 1941-1945."


GRADUATE STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTS

Jeffrey LaMonica, doctoral student in history, has published an article, "PT-Tenders: Unsung Heroes of the Southwest Pacific" in the March 2004 issue of World War II magazine.

David Longenbach, doctoral student in history, joined Thomas Fletcher, Dean of Workforce Development at Lehigh Carbon Community College, in presenting a paper titled "New Frontiers: Community Colleges and the Challenges of Expansion" at the Pennsylvania Association of Two Year Colleges 61st Annual Conference on April 22. Longenbach was elected secretary of the Sons of Union Veterans Reserve Camp 48 of Northampton, Pennsylvania, this past fall. He will also be teaching a course, "Fascism and Nazism," for Penn State University's Lehigh Valley Campus in summer 2004.

Colonel Michael R. Matheny, USA (Ret.), doctoral student in history, ran the pilot program for the U.S. Army War College's Basic Strategic Art Program (BSAP) during the summer of 2003.  The capstone event of the course was a staff ride of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign. Mike reported on the staff ride, "It was great---nothing like using a battlefield for a classroom."

Matthew Muehlbauer, doctoral student in history, had his paper, "A Reconsideration of American Indian Warfare in the Colonial Era," accepted for publication in "The Only Way Open to Us": American Indian Warfare and Resistance, an essay collection edited by Dr. Stephen A. Carney of the U.S. Army's Center of Military History.  The book will be published by Brassey's, and the tentative release date is early 2006.

            Muehlbauer is also writing seven entries for the Encyclopedia of North American Colonial Warfare edited by Dr. Spencer C. Tucker.  The topics Muehlbauer has selected are: "Brookfield, Siege of (August 1675)" ; "Bushy Run, Battle of (5-6 August 1763)"; "Fort Detroit, Siege of (1763)"; "Mystic Fort Fight"; "Indian Warfare"; "Mourning War"; and "Skulking Way of War."

Joseph Seymour, M.A. student in history, started work as a Storyline Consultant for the National Museum of the United States Army.  He is writing a history of the 1781 Yorktown Campaign.

David J. Ulbrich continues to work on his dissertation, "Managing Marine Mobilization: Thomas Holcomb and the U.S. Marine Corps, 1936-1943."  He also published a review of The GI War Against Japan: American Soldiers in Asia and the Pacific during World War II by Peter Schrijvers in Journal of Asian Studies in November 2003.

Major Grant T. Weller, USAF, doctoral student in history, was promoted to his present rank on January 1, 2004.  Temple University faculty and graduate students, as well as family and neighbors, attended the short ceremony formalizing the promotion.  Weller and his wife, Marie Weller, co-authored entries on "St. Helena" and "The Dardanelles" for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.  These will be their first joint publications.

Jason Wittemen, M.A. student in history, is presently interning full-time as a research and writing assistant for Dr. Anthony H. Cordesman at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Cordesman holds the Arleigh Burke Chair in Strategy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.  Millions of Americans know him from his frequent television appearances as a national security analyst for ABC News.  Among Cordesman's most recent books are The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons (2003) and The Lessons of Afghanistan (2002).  Wittemen was chosen over many other competitors for this appointment, which will contribute immeasurably to his education and professional development.


JASON WITTEMEN NAMED PRESIDENTIAL MANAGEMENT FELLOW

            Jason Wittemen, who is currently completing the requirements for his M.A. in history at Temple, has just been selected as a class of 2004 Presidential Management Fellow (PMF).  Obtaining such a fellowship carries an enormous amount of prestige, and the competition is understandably intense.  The objective of the Presidential Management Fellowship is to identify graduate students who show exceptional promise and provide them with preparation for public service.  Through this program, Wittemen will soon begin a two-year career track appointment within the federal government, working at least two executive branch departmental rotations while receiving on-going leadership training.

            In the words of the Executive Order that established the Presidential Management Fellowship (PMF) program, its purpose "is to attract to the Federal service outstanding men and women from a variety of academic disciplines and career paths who have a clear interest in, and commitment to, excellence in the leadership and management of public policies and programs."  The criteria for selection of PMFs include a record of graduate study that demonstrates "both exceptional ability and the commitment to public service."

            While at Temple, Wittemen studied primarily with Russell F. Weigley, Richard H. Immerman, and Gregory J. W. Urwin.  He expects to receive his M.A. in May 2004.  After completing his tenure as a PMF, Wittemen intends to earn a Ph.D. in international relations with an emphasis in security studies to prepare for a career in both government and education.  Jason is the first Temple student to receive this coveted fellowship.


ALUMNI NEWS

Peter Kindsvatter (Ph.D., 1998) received a glowing review for his new book, American Soldiers: Ground Combat in the World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam, in the December 2003 issue of the Journal of American History.  Edward Drea praised Kindsvatter for offering readers "a new appreciation of the social consequences of warfare."  Kindsvatter is the command historian at the U.S. Army Ordnance Center and Schools at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland.  He studied under Dr. Russell W. Weigley while earning his doctorate at Temple.  American Soldiers is a main selection of the Military History Book Club and a selection of the History Book Club.

Adam Norman Lynde (Ph.D., 1992) will have his first book, The Mediterranean Theater: British and American Combined Operations, 1942-1945, released in May 2004 by Scholarly Resources.  Lynde wrote his dissertation, "The British Army in North America, 1755-1783: Defeat as a Consequence of the British Constitution," under the direction of Dr. Russell F. Weigley.


KINDSVATTER RECEIVES RICHARD LEOPOLD PRIZE FROM OAH

            Just as this issue of Strategic Visions was going to press, CENFAD received the welcome news that the Organization of American Historians had presented Temple alumnus Peter Kindsvatter (Ph.D., 1998) with the Richard Leopold Prize for his new book, American Soldiers: Ground Combat in the World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam.

            Kindsvatter's book is the first to synthesize the wartime experiences of American combat soldiers, from the doughboys of World War I to the grunts of Vietnam.  Focusing on both soldiers and Marines, it draws on histories and memoirs, oral histories, psychological and sociological studies, and even fiction to show that the experiences of American troops remain fundamentally the same regardless of the enemy, terrain, training, or weaponry.

            Kindsvatter gets inside the minds of American soldiers to reveal what motivated them to serve and how they were turned into soldiers.  He recreates the physical and emotional aspects of war to tell how fighting men dealt with danger and hardship, and he explores the roles of comradeship, leadership, and the sustaining beliefs in cause and country.  He also illuminates soldiers' attitudes toward the enemy, toward the rear echelon, and toward the home front.  And he tells why some broke down under fire while others excelled.

            By capturing the core "band of brothers" experience across several generations of warfare, Kindsvatter celebrates the American soldier while helping readers to better understand war's lethal reality -- and why soldiers persevere in the face of its horrors.

            The Leopold Prize is given by the Organization of American Historians every two years for the best book written by a historian connected with federal, state or municipal government.  It is named after Richard Leopold, the long time historian of U.S. foreign policy at Northwestern University and president of the OAH from 1976-1977.  Winning this national award is a singular honor for Kindsvatter and the Temple History Department.  It is difficult to imagine a more fitting testimonial to Russell F. Weigley, who directed Kindsvatter's dissertation.  Weigley was not only Kindsvatter's mentor, but he also wrote the foreword to American Soldiers.


CENFAD SHINES AT 2004 BARNES CLUB CONFERENCE

            Temple University's graduate program in history enjoys the support of the Barnes Club, a student organization dedicated to creating a stronger sense of community among our graduate students.  The Barnes Club provides students with opportunities to network with their professors and peers, and it provides a forum for students to discuss their ideas and concerns.  The club also represents our students in presenting issues of special concern to the History Department's Graduate Council.

            One of the Barnes Club's most important projects is the sponsorship of an annual conference for graduate students in history, giving them a chance to share their research with their peers.

            The Ninth Annual Barnes Club Conference, which was held on February 28, 2004, at Temple University - Center City (TUCC), was an outstanding success.  It was the largest conference that the Barnes Club has ever organized, featuring a record-breaking twenty-five paper panels, plus a session on mock interviews to prepare graduate students for the academic job market and a workshop on academic publishing.  The conference program listed sixty-seven different student papers.  Presenters came from as far away as the London School of Economics and Cambridge University in England, as well as from schools all over the United States, including Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Johns Hopkins, CUNY, Boston College, Wisconsin-Madison, Syracuse, Southern California, George Mason, Northern Illinois, Maryland, Texas-Austin, Texas A & M, Houston, California State-Fresno, California State-Northridge, Alabama, Saint Louis, Loyola-Chicago, Fordham, SUNY-Albany, North Carolina State, Western Carolina, Southern Mississippi, Penn State, Delaware, Villanova, Lehigh, Rutgers-Camden, Millersville, and Temple.

            The evolution of the Barnes Club Conference from a modest regional gathering to an international event received its final push from the vision, ambition, and energy of this year's program chair, David J. Ulbrich, a doctoral student in military history at Temple.  Ulbrich mounted a major effort to advertise the conference via academic listserves and other venues, and the response he received was overwhelming.  Ulbrich explained his success in these words: "There's really no conference like this in the Mid-Atlantic region, because we're so open to submissions.  Every type of history imaginable is represented here.  We accepted papers on medieval history, African-American history, and imperialism in China.  It's definitely cross-cultural and multicultural."  Among Ulbrich's many other accomplishments as program chair, he prevailed on the U.S. Army Heritage Center Foundation to sponsor a prize for the most promising paper in military or diplomatic history.

            Several other Temple students affiliated with CENFAD participated in the 2004 Barnes Club Conference.  Jason Wittemen presented a paper on "Fighting Fire with Fire: Comparing Bush and Bin Laden."  Richard Grippaldi chaired a session on "The American Civil War in Memory and Reality."  Bobby Wintermute, Matthew Muehlbauer, John Oram, Philip Gibbon, and Grant Weller commented on different panels.

            CENFAD faculty also played a part in the conference's success.  Russell F. Weigley presided over a panel on "Technological Developments and Military Applications." Vladislav Zubok chaired a panel on "Differing Détentes: Germany and France in the Cold War."   Jay Lockenour chaired a session on "European Diplomacy between the Wars, 1870-1914."  Regina Gramer chaired a panel titled "Friends and Foes: Security in an Insecure World." CENFAD Fellow Steve Hatch from the University of Florida commented on Gramer's panel.  Richard H. Immerman participated in the workshop on "Article and Book Publishing."

            Weigley, Lockenour, and Wintermute pulled double duty by comprising the committee that chose the winner of the U.S. Army Heritage Center Foundation Prize for the Most Promising Paper in Military or Diplomatic History.  Lorraine Luciano, the education director at the Army Heritage Center Foundation, made the presentation at the end of the conference.  First place and a $200 cash prize went to Clay Mountcastle, a captain in the U.S. Army and a doctoral candidate at Duke University, who spoke on "'A Filthy and Disgusting Condition': Disease in the Civil War Prisons of Richmond, Virginia."  Anne Louise Antonoff, a doctoral candidate at Yale University, received an honorable mention for her paper, "The Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovinia, 1908-1909: Unilateral Action and Multilateral Diplomacy."


URWIN'S CAMPAIGNS AND COMMANDERS SERIES ADDS TWO MORE TITLES

            When Gregory J. W. Urwin joined the Temple University History Department in 1999, CENFAD became the headquarters for "Campaigns and Commanders," the book series that Urwin edits for University of Oklahoma Press.  In the spring of 2004, Campaigns and Commanders added the third and fourth titles to its lineup, Washita: The U.S. Army and the Southern Cheyennes, 1867-1869 by Jerome A. Greene and Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne's Legion in the Old Northwest by Alan D. Gaff.

Jerome A. Greene's Washita deals with one of the more important and controversial battles of the Indian wars that rocked the Great Plains following the American Civil War.  On November 27, 1868, the 7th U.S. Cavalry Regiment under Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer attacked a Southern Cheyenne village along the Washita River in present-day western Oklahoma.  The subsequent American victory signaled the end of the Cheyennes' traditional way of life and resulted in the death of Black Kettle, their most prominent peace chief.  Long considered a watershed event, the Washita received formal national recognition in 1996 when the site became a unit of the National Park System.  Now, in a remarkably balanced history, Greene draws on newly available material from both Indian and U.S. Army sources to retell in unprecedented depth the story of what happened on the snowy banks of the Washita River at dawn that November day.

            Tracing the history of the Southern Cheyennes from the seventeenth century, Greene describes the horrific losses Black Kettle's people suffered at Sand Creek, Colorado, four years earlier.  Terrified of another attack, Black Kettle sought to maintain a fragile peace, but to no avail.  On orders from Major General Philip Henry Sheridan, the U.S. Army made a retaliatory strike against the Indians for purported raids, deliberately attacking the Cheyennes in the deep of winter when the Indians were most vulnerable.

            Synthesizing primary and secondary sources, Greene describes the event's causes, conduct, and consequences even as he addresses the multiple controversies surrounding the conflict, including questions of whether the engagement was a battle or a massacre and whether Custer purposely abandoned some of his men during the fighting.  As Greene explains, the engagement brought both praise and condemnation for Custer and carried long-range implications for his stunning defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn eight years later.

            In an endorsement utilized in press advertising, Urwin praised Greene's achievement: "This is history for grown-ups, and not one of those fairy tales of good guys versus bad guys that so often masquerades as Indian wars history.  There are no heroes or villains in this book, but instead flawed human beings caught up in a tragic clash of cultures.  Greene writes history that is both accessible and authoritative."

            Jerome A. Greene is Research Historian for the National Park Service in Denver and a prolific scholar in his own right.  His other books include Evidence and the Custer Enigma; Slim Buttes, 1876: An Episode of the Great Sioux War; Yellowstone Command: Colonel Nelson A. Miles and the Great Sioux War, 1876-1877; Battles and Skirmishes of the Great Sioux War, 1876-1877; The Military View; Lakota and Cheyenne: Indian Views of the Great Sioux War, 1876-1877; Morning Star Dawn: The Powder River Expedition and the Northern Cheyennes, 1876; and Nez Perce Summer: The U.S. Army and the Nee-Me-Poo Crisis.

           Alan D. Gaff examines an earlier Indian war in Bayonets in the Wilderness. Ration shortages, disloyalty, defeat, and international meddling -- such were the obstacles facing Major General Anthony Wayne as he sought to secure the Old Northwest Territory for white settlement in the 1790s.  When President George Washington appointed Wayne to command the Legion of the United States, he granted him unlimited powers to conduct a military campaign against the Indian confederacy of the Ohio River Valley.

            In Bayonets in the Wilderness, Alan D. Gaff explores this long-neglected period in American history to tell the complete story of how the U.S. Army conquered the first American frontier.  Wayne's successful campaign led to the creation of a standing army for the country and set the standard for future conflicts and treaties with American Indians.  Countering the popular impression of Wayne as "mad," Gaff depicts him as a thoughtful, resolute, and diplomatic officer whose masterfully organized campaign brought an end to forty years of border fighting.

            In this detailed, definitive military history, Gaff documents the British and French influence, the famed battle at Fallen Timbers, and the Treaty of Greeneville, which ended hostilities in the region.  His account brings to light alliances between Indian forces and the British military, demonstrating that British troops still conducted operations on American soil long after the supposed end of the American Revolution.

            Alan D. Gaff is an independent scholar and the author of four books on military history, Brave Men's Tears: The Iron Brigade at the Battle of Brawner Farm; If This Is War: A History of the Campaign of Bull's Run by the Wisconsin Regiment Thereafter Known as the Ragged Ass Second; and On Many a Bloody Field: Four Years in the Iron Brigade (a selection of the History Book Club).  He also co-edited (with Maureen Gaff) Adventures on the Western Frontier, a memoir by Major General John Gibbon.


NEWS FROM THE DIRECTOR
 

RICHARD H. IMMERMAN



            In the past several issues of Strategic Visions, I have used this column to write about contemporary matters of global politics that reflect the mission of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy.  In this column I will reflect upon very personal matters, albeit matters that are no less central, and in fundamental respects even more central, to that mission.

            For CENFAD, the final weeks of the 2004 winter season have been the best of times, and the worst of times.  I will begin with the latter, because it is uppermost on my mind and that of all of us associated with the Center.  We have lost Russ Weigley, tragically, prematurely, and without warning. T here is no need to review Russ's many, many accomplishments.  The most cursory review of the lead article in this Strategic Visions will demonstrate what a titan he was in the field of military history, and the incalculable impact he had on the countless scholars, students, and "history buffs" that read his exceptional publications or heard him speak.

            For those of us who could with great pride call Russ a friend and a colleague, he was more than a magnificent historian.  He was an inspiration, an individual who combined a fabulous mind with the warmest of hearts.  Russ was responsible for my coming to Temple.  In part that was because of his reputation.  As I am sure was the case for so many academics that were presented with the opportunity to join the faculty of Temple over the past four decades, the prospect of collaborating with someone as venerable and venerated as Russ was irresistible.  But there was more to it, so much more.  I recall vividly Russ meeting me at the hotel soon after I arrived for my interview.  He took me to dinner, where we talked about Temple, and we talked about establishing CENFAD.  The enthusiasm manifest in every one of his sentences was contagious, and he spoke without a trace of pretension.  Although he surely realized that for me he was the main attraction, Russ always used "we," not "I." I had been around scholarly stars for many years, and, frankly, I had not expected such humility, or for that matter, such an infectious sense of humor.  I did expect the "performance" I witnessed when we got around to discussing history.  Russ seemed to know everything about anything; indeed, he was more expert about subjects about which I was supposed to be the expert.  (I subsequently observed Russ giving dozens of lectures; not once can I remember him referring to notes.)  No doubt many others shared my experience.

            We then went for a walk around Philadelphia.  Russ always walked.  He and Emma were proud that they did not own a car.  If the destination was too far to go by foot, they loved the intellectual challenge of figuring out how to travel there by public transportation.  Russ brought to bear on studying a map of bus and rail lines the same rigor, attention to detail, and imagination with which he studied archives.  Russ showed me Center City like few if any others could.  He was familiar with every nook and cranny.  He then brought me back to his home on South Smedley Street to relax and meet Emma.  How delightful that was!  Russ didn't try to sell me on Temple, but by the time I returned to my hotel room, I was sold.  Totally.

            I never thought I had to sell myself to Russ, however.  He was probably the least judgmental person I have ever known.  Over the next couple of years, along with David Rosenberg, he and I founded CENFAD.  The initial idea was Russ's and that of my predecessor, Waldo Heinrichs.  Russ had a way of leading without asserting himself.  Somehow, and I still don't know how, from the start I ended up with the lion's share of organizational and administrative responsibilities.  I learned to manage these.  But when it came to the substance of what CENFAD did or planned to do, I learned from Russ.  I leaned on Russ.  I depended on Russ.  The same held true, I must add, with regard to the countless students whom we advised in common, not to mention my own scholarship.  What I appreciated most about Russ, nevertheless, was who he was.  He was a teacher/scholar.  He was a gentleman.  And he was a friend.  While so many throughout the world have benefitted and will benefit from Russ Weigley the historian, I benefitted from Russ Weigley the person.  It was my great fortune to know Russ.  I will cherish every memory.

            CENFAD will never be able to replace Russ.  Never.  But CENFAD will continue to grow, and grow stronger.  As I wrote initially, these months have been the best as well as worst of times for us.  Actually, the best is still to come.  Since last October I have not been able to devote as much time to CENFAD as I would have liked because I have been so busy chairing the History Department.  What has kept me so busy was our recruitment of new faculty.  Dean Susan Herbst was incredibly generous to our department.  She authorized our extending eight offers.  Anecdotal evidence suggests that eight is an unprecedented number.  What may well also be unprecedented is everyone accepted.  And I can assure the readers of Strategic Visions that all eight will contribute to expanding and improving CENFAD.  I will introduce this embarrassment of riches by simply listing their names and their current institutions.  You can then enjoy on your own the excitement of researching their biographies.  They are, in alphabetical order, Beth Bailey (University of New Mexico); David Farber (University of New Mexico); Petra Goedde (Princeton University); Andrew Isenberg (Princeton University); Rita Krueger (University of Wisconsin); Bryant Simon (University of Georgia); Elizabeth Varon (Wellesley College); and David Waldstreicher (University of Notre Dame).  Moreover, newly appointed Assistant Dean of Faculty for the College of Liberal Arts, William Hitchock, a foremost authority on modern France and European international relations, will be joining the History Department as an adjunct professor, and several other departments in CLA have hired faculty who will add both breath and depth to CENFAD.  These include Mark Pollack, in Political Science, who has already developed an outstanding reputation for his work on European integration and institutions.

                You will be hearing lots about and from all the above in the coming months and years.  I hope all of you will come to know them. I already have, and what a thrill it has been.  It is the worst of times, but it is also the best.


SUPPORT CENFAD

            The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy constantly seeks to expand its support base by recruiting more members.  Membership levels begin at $15.00 per year for current Temple students, both graduate and undergraduate.  A regular membership is $30.00, a sustaining membership is $250.00, and a lifetime membership is $1,000.

            Anyone who joins at the two highest levels will receive an autographed copy of Russell F. Weigley's classic book, The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo (1991).

            Readers of Strategic Visions are encouraged to enlist themselves or their friends as members of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy by making use of the form that accompanies this newsletter.

            Members receive a subscription to Strategic Visions and free admission to all Center activities. The Center also welcomes tax-deductible gifts from individuals and corporations interested in supporting its mission.

Make out your check to Temple University -- Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, and mail it to:

Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy
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Temple University
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