VISIT STRATEGIC VISIONS ONLINE AT http://www.temple.edu/cenfad/strategic-visions/index.html

STRATEGIC VISIONS

NEWSLETTER OF THE CENTER FOR THE STUDY OF FORCE AND DIPLOMACY AT TEMPLE UNIVERSITY (CENFAD)


Volume 4                     Fall 2003                     Number 2


EBLE ESTABLISHES BERGER FELLOWSHIP
IN WAR AND SOCIETY

            Joseph Eble, who received his master's degree in history from Temple University in 1997, recently made a major contribution to the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy by establishing the Sergeant Major William F. Berger Endowed Fellowship in War and Society. The fellowship is named in honor of Eble's father-in-law, a decorated sergeant major in the U.S. Army who fought in both World War II and Vietnam. Sergeant Major Berger retired from the Army after twenty-five years of service. He also served as the Junior ROTC director for the Gary, Indiana, public schools following his retirement from the military. Sergeant Major Berger passed away in 1987. His widow, Lilie Berger, currently lives in Northridge, California.

            Joe Eble entered Temple's M.A. program in 1994 after earning a graduate degree from the U.S. Naval War College in National Security and Strategic Studies. He retired from the U.S. Navy as a commander after twenty-one years of service. He currently works as a full-time history lecturer at Burlington County College in Pemberton, New Jersey, where he teaches both U.S. and European history. Eble believes it particularly appropriate that a fellowship named after his father-in-law stress the theme of war and society, a central focus of CENFAD's mission and an important dimension in the Temple History Department's curriculum.

            CENFAD will host a special ceremony in Eble's honor in the History Department Lounge (Gladfelter 914) at 4:00 P.M. on Friday, November 7, 2003.
 
 

ZIMMERMAN TO DISCUSS FAMED MARINE RAIDER,
EVANS CARLSON

            The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy will present an afternoon of Marine Corps history on Tuesday, October 21, 2003, when Dr. Phyllis A. Zimmerman of Ball State University pays a visit to Gladfelter Hall to discuss the insights gleaned from work on her forthcoming book, The First "Gung Ho" Marine: Evans F. Carlson of the Raiders. Zimmerman's talk, which is titled "The Perils and Pleasures of Crafting the Biography of WWII Marine Raider Evans F. Carlson," will run from 3:00 to 4:30 P.M. in Gladfelter 914, and will include a question-and-answer period. Attendance is free and open to the public.

            Zimmerman is currently an associate professor of history at Ball State University. She also served as the director of Ball State's Center for Peace and Conflict Studies from 1989 until 2002. Zimmerman earned her B.A. and M.A. from the University of Pennsylvania. She then earned her doctorate from Indiana University. Her areas of teaching and research interest are East Asian history, military history, 20th-century U.S. history, and peace studies. Zimmerman's publications include the well-regarded The Neck of the Bottle: George Goethals and the Reorganization of the U.S. Army Supply System (Texas A&M Press, 1992), for which she received a dissertation fellowship from the U.S. Army Center for Military History. Her book on Evans Carlson in under contract with Random House.

          Evans Carlson was born February 26, 1896, in Sidney, New York. He left high school in 1912 at age sixteen to enlist in the U.S. Army, and subsequently served on the Punitive Expedition and in France during World War I, rising to the rank of captain in the Field Artillery. Carlson then enlisted in the Marine Corps as a private in 1922. Commissioned a second lieutenant in 1923, he distinguished himself fighting bandits with Nicaragua's Guardia Nacional in the early 1930s, earning the Navy Cross.


(Left) Lieutenant Colonel Evans Carlson following his famous raid against Japanese-held Makin on August 17, 1942. (Courtesy National Archives)

            Between 1933 and 1938, Carlson served two lengthy tours of duty in China, where he observed Chinese soldiers in action and took note of Japanese tactics. Captain Carlson resigned his commission in 1939 so he could be free to warn his countrymen against the dangers of Japanese aggression in both lectures and publications.

            By 1941, Carlson recognized that war between the United States and Japan was imminent, and he returned to the Marine Corps as a major. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel and given command of the 2nd Marine Raider Battalion a year later. Carlson earned a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross for leading the famous raid on Makin on August 17, 1942, and he received a second Gold Star for his service on Guadalcanal a few months later.

            Carlson suffered a disabling wound while attempting to rescue an enlisted Marine from a front-line observation post on Saipan in 1944. He retired from the Marine Corps as a brigadier general on July 1, 1946, and died of heart illness less than a year later.
 
 

BONIN LECTURE ILLUMINATES OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM

            On Wednesday, March 26, less than a week after the American military unleashed the shock and awe campaign codenamed Operation Iraqi Freedom, the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy sponsored a timely lecture titled "Contemporary Army Operations in the Middle East: Afghanistan, Kuwait, and ?" Colonel John Bonin, U.S. Army (retired), the former George C. Marshall Chair of Military Studies at the U.S. Army War College and then the current Scholar-in-Residence at the Army Heritage Center Foundation, provided a packed lecture hall in the Tuttleman Learning Center on Temple's main campus with an inside view of the planning and conduct of Army operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.


(Right) Colonel John A. Bonin, U.S. Army (ret.), fields a student question during his lecture on recent U.S. Army operations in the Middle East.  (Courtesy Jay B. Lockenour)

            Colonel Bonin's engaging presentation raised a number of important issues concerning the challenges facing American armed forces in the Middle East, which include not only defeating a determined and at times devious foe, but also overcoming tremendous problems of logistics and organization. Bonin's forte is strategy, and he kept the audience's attention rightly focused on the political objectives to be achieved by the Army's operations.

            According to Bonin, the United States Army faces new challenges and problems in the 21stcentury. It is now smaller in size than at any time since before World War II, yet it is being called on to perform a variety of tasks and operations. This trend has been exacerbated by the Bush Administration's response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. For example, the Army has been tasked to create a peaceful and stable environment in Afghanistan. Bonin presumed, correctly, that the Army would have to perform the same mission in Iraq once major military operations there came to an end. The Army is testing its nation-building skills in Afghanistan, while trying to increase civilian responsibility and decrease the military's participation in dealing with the Afghan populace. Hopefully, the lessons learned in Afghanistan will pay off in Iraq.

            Combat in Afghanistan has taught the Army, especially its Special Operations Forces, the need for improved communications, logistics, and air assets. One of the main challenges the Army encountered while conducting operations is to find a way to be more hi-tech and low-tech at the same time.


(Left) A packed house gives Colonel Bonin its full attention.  (Courtesy Jay B. Lockenour)
            In attendance at the Bonin lecture were dozens of students from Dr. Jay B. Lockenour's War and Society class. For class credit, many students wrote brief reaction papers. The students were unanimous in recognizing the value of Bonin's remarks. Below is a sampling of quotations from those papers:

            "Neither CNN nor NBC could have given the students as much in-depth coverage of the intricacies of the war as Bonin. He allowed the students to see first-hand what the U.S. planned upon entering Iraq, and what the U.S. plans to do once Saddam is overthrown."

            "I think that more people should sit through Colonel Bonin's presentation. . . . Before the presentation, I really felt like I didn't know anything about the war in Iraq. . . . Now I have some idea about what's going on. . . . I actually felt very honored and dignified to have participated in a presentation from such an accomplished military officer."

 


(Right) A U.S. soldier searches an Iraqi citizen near Kirkuk, September 5, 2003.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)

            "I also learned from Colonel Bonin that we [are] indeed outnumbered. . . . This was the biggest shock of the day to me. I didn't even realize how organized the Iraqi forces were; all I kept hearing on the television was Iraqi troops kept on surrendering."

            "This presentation was ideal for a War and Society class, especially given the events going on in the world today."

            "Whether one is for or against the war in Iraq, presentations like Colonel Bonin's are an important source of first hand knowledge about military operations."

            "Not only did his presentation give me a better understanding of how aspects of the United States military work, but also an understanding of how they are being used in our current conflicts with Afghanistan and Iraq."

            The students gained insight into the organization and planning processes in which modern armed forces engage. They now have a greater appreciation for the complexity of military organization and operations. As one student indicated, the lecture "truly opened my eyes." Colonel Bonin clearly impressed the audience not only with his knowledge, but his professionalism and calm demeanor. In responding to an agitated anti-war protestor, Bonin exhibited the respect and thoughtfulness demanded of the military in a democracy.

            Bonin told his audience that the study of military operations and history requires an understanding of nuance and terminology and that requires a great deal of perseverance to do it. This assertion is certainly true, as is the need for involved citizens to acquire that understanding. CENFAD will continue to provide opportunities such as this to help Temple students and other interested parties better understand the salient roles the American government and military will play in shaping the 21st century.

 


Soldiers of the U.S. 101st Air Assault Division fire a TOW missile at the house containing Qusay
and Uday Hussein in the fire fight of July 22, 2003, that resulted in the deaths of Saddam
Hussein's two sons.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)



 

BIDDLE LECTURE EXPLORES ROOTS OF
STRATEGIC BOMBING

            On Monday, April 28, 2003, the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy sponsored a lecture delivered by Dr. Tami Davis Biddle on "Strategic Bombing in the Two World Wars: Impact and Consequences." Biddle is an associate professor in the Department of National Security and Strategy at the U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.

            Biddle received her Ph.D. in history from Yale University in 1995. Her first book, Rhetoric and Reality in Air Warfare: The Evolution of British and American Ideas about Strategic Bombing, 1914-1945, was published by Princeton University Press in 2002. She has also published articles in the International History Review and Journal of Strategic Studies. After securing an assistant professor's appointment in the Department of History at Duke University, Biddle came to the Army War College as the H. K. Johnson Visiting Professor for the 2001-2002 school year.

            Biddle's lecture focused on World War I and the interwar period to examine the roots of the massive strategic bombing campaigns Great Britain and the United States mounted during World War II. The two English-speaking allies expected strategic bombing to have a terrific impact in battling the Axis. While the promises of airpower advocates were not fully realized, strategic bombing was not a negligible factor.

            In World War I, bombing raids by German zeppelins inflicted property damage and human casualties in England. The attacks also cost the British lost time in their factories.

            During the interwar period, strategic bombing advocates predicted that air campaigns would inflict crippling physical damage on a nation's economy and lower enemy morale. Airmen assumed that the destruction and terror of aerial bombardment would cause working class populations to riot and possibly even revolt. Bombing theorists stressed the moral effect of air campaigns over the material. Nevertheless, a great gap existed between what the Royal Air Force promised and what it could actually do. In the United States, officers of the Army Air Corps exhibited a strong interest in technology and identifying strategically vital targets. American airmen grasped the interconnectedness of industrial targets and saw the need for a complex strategy.


A B-17 "Flying Fortress" in flight over England during World War II.  American airmen
entered the conflict thinking the B-17 was the ultimate weapon that would cripple enemy
industry and terrorize enemy civilians into an early surrender.
(Courtesy U.S. Air War College)


            The RAF's Bomber Command confronted Germany in 1939 unprepared for the type of war its strategic bombing doctrine contemplated. One of Bomber Command's most glaring defects was navigation. Early in the war, British bombers experienced only a 50 percent success rate at finding their targets during daylight flights. Once the RAF began attacking targets inside Germany, its bomber losses mounted to unacceptable levels. Despite their poor navigation skills, the British were forced to switch to area bombing at night. Instead of going after specific industrial targets, the British settled for the indiscriminate bombing of German cities -- targets they could find in the dark. The British hoped these raids would undermine enemy morale, especially among the German working class. Such results eluded Bomber Command, but the British could not admit that the one offensive weapon they had to use against Hitler's Germany from the June 1940 until June 1944 was flawed.

            The U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) deployed to Europe in 1942 eager to test its own strategic bombing theory -- namely, the daylight "precision" bombing of industrial targets. American bomber generals believed that large, tight formations of heavily armed B-17 "Flying Fortresses" could brush aside defending German fighters and pound targets inside Germany without sustaining heavy losses. The Americans underestimated the value of fighter escorts, and their bomber crews would pay a high price for this mistake.

        By 1943, both the RAF and the USAAF were in crisis. The RAF was beginning to suffer unacceptable losses again, and the USAAF concept of the invulnerable B-17 had proved to be infeasible. Eventually, the Americans were able to protect their bombers with long-range fighter escorts. Swarms of American fighters would virtually destroy the Luftwaffe, which enabled the Allies to enjoy air superiority over Normandy in June 1944 and also took considerable pressure off the British.

            Strategic bombing had an effect on the defeat of both Germany and Japan, but the results of the Allies' massive air campaigns did not live up to the expectations of their advocates. Turning airpower into a war-winning weapon proved to be far more difficult than the bomber generals' rhetoric suggested. Nor did strategic bombing lead to the collapse of enemy morale -- either at the front or behind the lines. Interwar air theorists had seriously misjudged the mettle of the civilian populations of Europe and Asia. Noncombatants exposed to strategic bombing proved to be remarkably resilient both physically and emotionally. In addition, economic infrastructures proved to be less vulnerable to strategic bombing than airmen had hoped.


CENFAD HOSTS TWO FELLOWS IN 2003-4

            The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy will host two visiting fellows in 2003-04. Michael Noonan, a captain in the U.S. Army Reserve, is a Ph.D. candidate in political science at Loyola University in Chicago. Captain Noonan is also currently the deputy director of the Program on National Security Studies at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. As a CENFAD fellow, Noonan will be completing his dissertation, "Civilian Control vs. Military Effectiveness in the United States." The other visiting fellow is Steve Hach, a Ph.D. candidate in history at the University of Florida, where he works with Robert McMahon. Hach will also spend this year completing his dissertation, "'Let's Finish Together this Nonsense': The Cold War in Florida." Providing a boost to CENFAD's program on War and Society, both Michael and Steve will give presentations to the CENFAD community based on their dissertations.


WORLD MEDIA BESIEGES CENFAD PROFS FOR
WARTIME COMMENTARY

        The Bush Administration's conduct of American foreign policy in the early months of 2003 and the unleashing of Operation Iraqi Freedom sent journalists around the world scrambling to find academics who could offer informed comment on the dramatic events unfolding in Washington, D.C., New York, and the Persian Gulf. A sizable contingent representing the mass media beat a path to the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy to pick the brains of its faculty.

        Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history and one of CENFAD's associate directors, gave interviews to local reporters employed by the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, South Jersey Courier Post, Intelligencer (Doylestown, PA), Bucks County Courier Times (Levittown, PA), and Times Herald (Norristown, PA). He also appeared on news and news talk programs broadcast in the Philadelphia area by CBS 3, ABC 6 WPVI, and CN8. On the national level, Urwin did interviews for the Los Angeles Times, New York Newsday, Boston Herald, Washington Herald (Seattle), Orlando Sentinel, St. Petersburg (Florida) Times, and Corpus Christi Coastal Times, as well as the Associated Press and Scripps Howard wire services. He reached international audiences with interviews in the Weekend Australian, Singapore's Straits Times, Moscow Times, and 168 ora (the Hungarian version of Time or Newsweek). Finally, Urwin took to the airwaves for a one-hour discussion of military terms and jargon on Minnesota Public Radio's "Midmorning" with Katherine Lanpher, an assessment of American strategy and tactics on "KCPW's Public Affairs Hour" in Salt Lake City, and a shorter interview on the "Jordan Rich Show," a production of Boston's WBZ News Radio.


(Right) A trooper from the U.S. 101st Air Assault Division on guard in Mosul, Iraq, September 2, 2003.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)

        Jay B. Lockenour, associate professor of history and another one of CENFAD's associate directors, was quoted in a February article in the Baltimore Sun that drew parallels between Saddam Hussein's alleged development of weapons of mass destruction and the rearmament of Hitler's Germany in the 1920s. Lockenour explained how the Soviet Union secretly assisted German efforts to expand the Wehrmacht. "They were cooperating secretly," he said. "The Germans would go out in Russia and try out new equipment like tanks and airplanes. That's where the Germans got excited about paratroopers, which they used early in the war to great effect."

        Richard H. Immerman, professor of history and CENFAD's director, also found himself besieged by the news media. In addition to many local newspapers, Immerman was quoted in the New York Times and the Chronicle of Higher Education.
 
 

NEWS FROM CENFAD FACULTY

Regina U. Gramer, special appointment assistant professor of history, has been busy identifying potential funding sources and grant opportunities for CENFAD, which she serves as assistant director. Thanks to generous funding provided by the College of Liberal Arts, she has been able to survey non-governmental foundations and identify a list of the top ten foundations most likely to support CENFAD research and outreach projects. Together with CENFAD's director, Dr. Richard H. Immerman, she has begun to visit these foundations as the first step in drafting grant applications.

            In July 2003, Gramer convened a workshop to discuss CENFAD's research project on civilian immunity in warfare. CENFAD faculty met with Colonel John Bonin and Dr. Conrad Crane from the U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and with Dr. Amelia Boss from Temple's Institute for International Law and Public Policy to explore avenues of collaboration. The participants agreed that one important goal of this project will be to highlight the paradox of how civilian casualties have become a "weapon of war." Another purpose of this historical and comparative study of how military operations affect civilians will be to establish more realistic expectations for the human cost of warfare and to challenge current American notions of "surgical air strikes" and "bloodless wars."


(Left) A B-29 assembly line during World War II.  These bombers spearheaded the U.S. Army Air Force's strategic bombing offensive against Japan.  (Courtesy U.S. Air War College)

            Furthermore, Gramer has developed three new potential research projects for CENFAD. The first is a study of anti-Americanism that provides an international and historic context to current debates on 9/11. This project will seek to foster dialogue on the consequences of American foreign and military polices, and challenge scholars and the American public to look at the United States from the outside in, that is, to include the perspectives of the nations and cultures affected by American power. The second project is a comparative study of American military occupations to examine possible avenues and likely pitfalls in the current postwar planning for Iraq's reconstruction. The purpose of this project is to identify why the American military was successful in liberating and democratizing some countries (such as Germany and Japan after World War II), but failed in other cases (as in the Philippines at the turn of the century). The third project is an investigation into the American culture of violence and the military's internal and external mechanisms for containing violence. In conjunction with other Temple research centers, Gramer has launched an additional initiative to investigate the recent growth of JROTC programs in public high-schools and the reliance on the military to reform some of the worst inner-city schools in the United States.

            Gramer contributed information for Ruth W. Schultz's article on CENFAD for the spring 2003 issue of the Temple Review, the university's alumni magazine. CENFAD's work, mission, and donors were profiled in a six-page article illustrated by some impressive war photography.

            Finally, Gramer reviewed The Failure of Peace in Europe, 1943-1948, edited by Antonio Varsori and Elena Calandri for the Journal of Cold War Studies, and Remaking the Conquering Heroes: The Social and Geopolitical Impact of the Post-War American Occupation of Germany by John Willoughby for Science and Society.


The B-29 bomber "Enola Gay" is loaded with an atomic bomb for its fateful flight to
Hiroshima, August 6, 1945.  (Courtesy U.S. Air War College)


Richard H. Immerman, professor of history and CENFAD director, found a few weeks during the summer to make some progress on his history of the CIA, and also his contribution to The CIA: A Comprehensive Reference, which he is co-authoring with Athan Theoharis, et al. Influencing Immerman's essay as well, although less directly and probably less obviously, was his publication of an essay on the 1950s in A Companion to American Foreign Relations, edited by Robert D. Schulzinger. Indeed, in this vein Immerman was a featured speaker at the State Department's conference marking the publication of the Foreign Relations series volume on the Guatemalan coup of 1954 and the additional release of concomitant CIA archives (for information on this highly unusual event see the National Coalition for History's Washington update available through the History News Network at: http://hnn.us/comments/12396.html ). Immerman also reprised his role as the foreign policy scholar at the Eisenhower Academy this past summer at Gettysburg College.

            The start of the 2003-4 school year will once again leave Immerman with little time to do much other than administer Temple's History Department (notwithstanding the March 2004 deadline for submitting his CIA history). Fortunately, in a perverse sense, 2004 will mark the 50th anniversary of the coup orchestrated by the Eisenhower administration in Guatemala. A special roundtable discussion of the coup has been scheduled for the annual meeting of the American Historical Association in January 2004. Immerman has accepted an invitation to participate. He will actually pull double duty at the conference by also chairing a presidential session entitled "The American Empire - Past, Present, and Future."

            On a another exciting note, Immerman has accepted an invitation to serve on the advisory panel for Churchill and the Great Republic -- a major exhibition about the long and active life and career of Sir Winston Churchill. Organized by the Library of Congress, the exhibition will draw upon the library's rich collections and those of the Churchill Archives Centre to emphasize Churchill's lifelong links with North America, from his first visit in 1895 to the award of his honorary American citizenship in 1963.
 

Jay B. Lockenour, associate professor of history, received the Eleanor Hofkin Award for Excellence in Teaching this past spring from the College of Liberal Arts Alumni Board. In view of this honor and Lockenour's campus-wide reputation for outstanding teaching, it should come as no surprise that he has just been named director of the Awareness of Teaching and Teaching Improvement Center (ATTIC) in the College of Liberal Arts.

            At the upcoming annual meeting of the American Historical Association in January 2004, Lockenour is scheduled to participate in a panel titled "From Enemy to Ally: Reconciliation Made Real in Post-War Germany." Lockenour's paper, "Friend or Foe?:  The Image of the Enemy in Post-World War II West German Combat Films" will place such popular war films as 08/15 and Die Brucke in their Cold War context. Lockenour will compare these West German productions with contemporaneous British and American films, and also older National Socialist films. He will highlight how the images of the enemy presented in West German cinema fostered German-American friendship while exacerbating East-West conflict.
 

David A. Rosenberg, professorial lecturer in history and a co-founder of CENFAD, was appointed director of "Task Force History," which was established in February 2003 by NAVADMIN 054/03 to oversee the documentation of U. S. Navy operations and planning in Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Global War on Terror. It operates under the direct authority of the Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO), with the daily oversight of Director, Navy Staff. Task Force History is responsible for capturing and chronicling Navy operational history and coordinates and leverages the efforts of a coalition of Navy operational commands, as well as organizations from across the Navy, such as the Naval Historical Center, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Naval Special Warfare Command, Naval War College, and Office of Naval Intelligence. Rosenberg is a senior Navy civilian professor, assistant to VCNO, and a captain in the Naval Reserve.

            Rosenberg is currently writing an article on "What the Navy Needs to Know About History . . . And History Needs to Know About the Navy" for U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings.
 

Gregory J. W. Urwin, professor of history, published a chapter titled "Cornwallis and the Slaves of Virginia: A New Look at the Yorktown Campaign," in John A. Lynn, ed., ACTA, International Commission of Military History, XXVIII Congress: Coming to the Americas. As evidence of the relevance of history, Urwin's essay is being circulated among the senior leaders of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency so, as one staffer put it, they can "read and absorb some of the lessons for a complacent colonial power fighting an inferior insurgent army."


(Right) Lieutenant General Charles, Earl Cornwallis.  A print made from a 1786 portrait, for which Cornwallis sat five years after his defeat at Yorktown.  (Courtesy Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library.  Photo by Rene Chartrand)
            Urwin published another book chapter, "Poison Spring and Jenkins' Ferry: Racial Atrocities during the Camden Expedition," in "All Cut to Pieces and Gone to Hell": The Civil War, Race Relations, and the Battle at Poison Spring, which was edited by Mark A. Christ of the Arkansas Historic Preservation Project. The book was published by August House for the Butler Center for Arkansas Studies in Little Rock, Arkansas.

           Urwin contributed ten entries to the Encyclopedia of American Military History, a three-volume reference work edited by Dr. Spencer C. Tucker of the Virginia Military Institute for Facts On File, Inc. Urwin's topics ranged from the American Civil War to World War II - "Bataan Death March," "Custer, George Armstrong (1839-1876)," "Custer, Thomas Ward (1845-1876)," "Fort Wagner, assault on (18 July 1863)," "Kimmel, Husband Edward (1882-1968)," "Little Bighorn, battle of (25-26 July 1876)," "Pea Ridge, battle of (7-8 March 1862)," "Shaw, Robert Gould (1837-1863)," "Wake Island (8-23 December 1941)," "Washita River, battle of (27 November 1868)." Urwin also contributed an entry on Wake Island to Tucker's Naval Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, which ABC-Clio published last year.

            "Wake Island, Alamo of the Pacific," the two-hour documentary based on Urwin's 1997 book, Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island, premiered on the History Channel on June 2, 2003, to high ratings (for cable television, that is). On July 11, Urwin was interviewed for one hour about "History and Reenacting" on "Radio Times," a production of WHYY 90.9 FM public radio in Philadelphia.

            In early September, Urwin flew to Boise, Idaho, to be the featured speaker at the final reunion of the Survivors of Wake, Guam, and Cavite, Inc. The organization, which represented American civilian construction workers captured by Japanese forces at American naval bases in the Pacific between December 1941 and May 1942, officially dissolved at the end of the reunion. Urwin assured these men (along with the many relatives and friends in attendance) that they would be remembered by history as more than victims of military aggression. His talk, "The Wake Island Militia," told the story of those civilians who took up arms and assisted in the defense of Wake Island from December 8 to 23, 1941.

            During the past year, Urwin published book reviews in the Journal of American History, Pacific Historical Review, Journal of Military History, Civil War History, Civil War Book Review,and Military History of the West.

            Urwin also found the time to fit in a little living history this past summer. He helped commemorate the 225th anniversary of the Revolutionary War battle at Monmouth Court House, New Jersey, by participating in the reenactment held there on June 28 and 29. During that event, Urwin was promoted from "recruit" to "fusilier" (private) in the 23rd Royal Welch Fusiliers. A little more than a month later, Urwin changed time periods and put on the uniform of a Union infantry captain to command the right wing of the 1st Battalion, Provisional Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Potomac, in the big 140th anniversary reenactment held at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on August 9 and 10.


Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin shares a relaxed moment with his comrades in the 23rd Royal Welch
Fusiliers during the 225th anniversary reenactment of the Battle of Monmouth, New Jersey,
in late June 2003.  (Courtesy John Maas)


STEEL, BONIN, & WINTERMUTE RECEIVE
CENFAD GRADUATE PRIZES

            Last spring, committees composed of faculty affiliated with the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy chose three doctoral students to receive the Center's endowed prizes for the support of dissertation research.

                Laura Szumanski Steel (ABD) received the Wachman Prize. The Wachman Prize was established by Dr. Marvin Wachman, Temple University's sixth president who also taught in the university's History Department. Dr. Wachman is currently Temple's chancellor emeritus. The Wachman Award is bestowed annually on an outstanding graduate student in U.S. diplomatic history who is likely to make significant contributions to U.S. higher education. Steel's dissertation is titled "One Nation Under God: The American Catholic Church, Civil Religion, and the Vietnam War, 1954-1971."

            John A. Bonin (ABD) received a grant from the John F. Votaw Endowed Graduate Research Fund in History. This prize was established by Temple alumnus Dr. John F. Votaw (Ph.D., 1991), who also supports CENFAD by serving on its Board of Advisers. The Votaw fund is intended to fund dissertation research congruent with CENFAD's mission.

            Bobby Wintermute (ABD) received a grant from the Jeffrey K. Bower Endowed Graduate Research Fund in History. The Bower fund is the result of the generosity of another Temple alumnus, Jeffrey K. Bower (CLA 1981), who also belongs to CENFAD's Board of Advisers.


Strategic Visions: Newsletter of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy at Temple University.

Editor: Gregory J. W. Urwin

Co-Editors of Internet Edition: Richard H. Immerman and Andrew McKevitt

Contributors: Jay B. Lockenour, Richard H. Immerman, Michael Paulauskas, Britton MacDonald
 

Strategic Visions is published twice a year by the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, Department of History, Temple University. CENFAD was founded in 1992 by Drs. Russell F. Weigley and Richard H. Immerman. The Center promotes research and sponsors programs designed to construct new theories of statecraft and illuminate the process whereby force and diplomacy are orchestrated to produce peace and security. Address all comments, news, and other correspondence to the editor, Gregory J. W. Urwin, Department of History, Temple University, Gladfelter Hall (025-24), 1115 West Berks Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Phone: 215- 204-3809. E-Mail: gurwin@.temple.edu.


GRADUATE STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTS

Commander Randy C. Balano, a doctoral student in history, was promoted from lieutenant commander to her current rank in the U.S. Naval Reserve effective March 1, 2003.

            Recalled to active duty with the U.S. Navy in the aftermath of 9/11, Balano was released effective November 2, 2002. Effective November 18, she accepted a civilian position with the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) and is now ONI's full-time command historian.

            As part of the Naval Historical Center's Seminar Series, Balano presented a lecture in March 2003 titled "Wrestling with Women: U.S. Navy Perceptions and Policies, 1917-1945." The lecture was based on the first chapter of her dissertation, which she is writing under the direction of Dr. David A. Rosenberg, professorial lecturer in history and captain in the U.S. Naval Reserve.

            For Balano's work in documenting the role of naval intelligence in the war on terrorism during her recent tour of active duty, the Vice Chief of Naval Operations awarded her the Meritorious Service Medal in April 2003.

            Naval History has accepted Balano's article, "Agents of Transformation: T. B. M. Mason and the Office of Naval Intelligence."  The piece is a biographical essay about the founder of the Office of Naval Intelligence, and the role ONI played in creating the first modern steel navy.

            At present, Balano is working with the Naval Historical Foundation to help organize a symposium to celebrate the twentieth anniversary of women going to sea. It is tentatively scheduled to take place at the Navy Memorial in Washington, D.C., in November 2003. In addition, Balano is hard at work with her dissertation director, David A. Rosenberg, in putting the final touches on a book manuscript that will be published by Naval Institute Press. It is titled "Operational Intelligence in the Age of Global Conflict: OPINTEL and the U.S. Navy, 1939-1999."  Rosenberg co-authored the work, and Balano has acted primarily as the manuscript's editor.

        Commander Balano also writes that she continues to make progress with her dissertation.
 

Christian DeJohn, M.A. student in history, has landed an internship with the U.S. Army Heritage Center Foundation, which is headquartered at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. DeJohn will work with the news media in publicizing the National Museum of the United States Army, which is being built under the foundation's aegis. He will also write articles for the foundation's new magazine, Army Heritage.
 

Jeffrey LaMonica, doctoral student in history, published "Film as Propaganda: Battle of the Somme" in the winter 2002 issue of the Journal of the Great War Society. He participated in a panel discussion on "Emperor Wilhelm and the July Crisis" at the East Coast Chapter of the Western Front Association's Fall 2002 Seminar on October 26, 2002. On December 3, 2002, he presented a paper on "The Eastern Front 1914-1917" at the University of Delaware's Academy of Lifelong Learning. LaMonica returned to the University of Delaware on March 18, 2003, to speak on "Great War Propaganda: Themes and Methods."
 

Phillip G. Pattee, doctoral student in history, has had an eventful spring and summer. He retired from the U.S. Navy as a commander and ended his tour as an instructor at the U.S. Army War College. On July 15, he passed his preliminary examinations at Temple, and three days later he moved to Kansas to take up his new position as an instructor in the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth.
 

David J. Ulbrich, doctoral student in history, has been awarded the 2003 General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., Memorial Dissertation Fellowship by the Marine Corps Heritage Foundation. The fellowship comes with a stipend of $10,000. David will use these funds to finance the research for his doctoral dissertation, "Managing Marine Mobilization: Thomas Holcomb and the U.S. Marine Corps, 1936-1943," which he is writing under the direction of Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin. Lieutenant General Thomas Holcomb served as Marine Corps Commandant from 1936 to 1943. He presided over the U.S. Marine Corps' mobilization for World War II and its performance during the first two years of America's involvement in that struggle.


(Left) David J. Ulbrich (with beard) went to Wake Island in August 2001 with five veterans of Thomas Holcomb's Marine Corps, to shoot "Wake Island, Alamo of the Pacific," which recently aired on the History Channel.  David leans on a coral boulder inscribed by one or more of ninety-eight American civilian construction workers who were later machine-gunned by their Japanese captors elsewhere on Wake in October 1943.  At left is Ralph J. Holewinski, who as a Marine corporal played a leading role in Wake's defense, December 8-23, 1941.  Squatting at right is Dan King, another historical consultant with the production.  (Courtesy David J. Ulbrich)

        Despite Holcomb's paramount importance to the development and success of the Marine Corps, his role as commandant has not been the subject of a comprehensive and scholarly study -- until now. World War II was the making of the modern Marine Corps, and it is appropriate that the Marine Corps Heritage Foundation should choose to fund a dissertation on Holcomb.

        Ulbrich has already made a mark for himself in Marine Corps studies. His article, "Clarifying the Origins and Strategic Mission of the U.S. Marine Corps Defense Battalion, 1898- 1941," which appeared in the October 1999 issue of War and Society, received the Robert Debs Heinl, Jr., Award from the Marine Corps Heritage Foundation as the outstanding scholarly article published that year in Marine Corps history. In addition, the Marine Corps History and Museums Division is publishing Ulbrich's M.A. thesis, "Thomas Holcomb and the Advent of the Marine Corps Defense Battalion, 1936-1941," as a volume in its "Occasional Paper Series."

        Never one to rest on his laurels, Ulbrich served a second year as a referee for the U. S. Department of Education's "Teaching American History Program." The program, proposed by Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, distributes up to $1 million to promote partnerships between institutions of higher education and secondary school districts to enhance the teaching of American history at the secondary school level. Ulbrich also refereed a book manuscript for Longman Publishers. His review of B. R. Burg's Gay Warriors: A Documentary History from the Ancient World to the Present appeared in the April 2003 issue of Journal of Military History.


Lieutenant General Thomas Holcomb, USMC (second from right) receives
the congratulations of Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox (at left), upon
being presented with the Distinguished Service Medal in recognition of
his service as Commandant of the Marine Corps from 1936 to 1943.
The presentation took place in Secretary Knox's office on  April 12, 1944.
Looking on are Lieutenant General Alexander A. Vandegrift, Holcomb's
successor as Commandant of the Marine Corps (right) and Colonel James
Roosevelt, the son of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
(Courtesy U.S. Naval Historical Center and National Archives)


Bobby Wintermute, doctoral student in history, has been appointed to a term as scholar-in-residence at the U.S. Army Heritage Center Foundation at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. Wintermute is also hard at work on his dissertation, "Waging Health: The United States Army Medical Department and Public Health in the Progressive Era," which he is writing under the direction of Dr. Russell F. Weigley.
 

Jason Wittemen, M.A. student in history, spent the summer of 2003 working as a homeland security and counterterrorism research analyst at the Eisenhower Institute in Washington. D.C. He worked under the guidance of such notable figures as General Andrew J. Goodpaster, U.S. Army (Ret.) and the British Army's Major General Charles Vyvyan, the former defense attache in the British Embassy at Washington, D.C., and head of the British Defense Staff throughout the United States. Jason expects to submit three articles for publication on the Eisenhower Institute web site this fall.

        Jason's tour at the Eisenhower Institute complements the work he did in the summer of 2002 when he served as an assistant to Randy Papadopoulos at the Naval Historical Center, researching the response of the Arlington County Police Department to al Qeada's attack on the Pentagon, September 11, 2001.
 
 

SCENFAD AT MANASSAS




            Continuing to stress the importance of studying history outside of the classroom, the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy (SCENFAD) trekked south to Virginia on April 25 and 26 to tour the site of the American Civil War's First Battle of Manassas. This engagement, which occurred on July 21, 1861, and resulted in a Confederate victory, was the earliest major confrontation between Union and Confederate armies on the field of battle. The SCENFAD members who participated in the trip included Mike Paulauskas, Dan Kottcamp, Chuck Wexler, and Steve Schrader.


(Right) Standing beside the Old Stone Brigade on the south side of Bull Run, Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin orients members of the Student Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy as to the starting moves of the Union and Confederate armies that fought at the First Battle of Manassas.  (Photo courtesy Jeffrey K. Bower)

            After surviving the intense Friday afternoon rush hour near Washington, D.C., and spending the night at a local motel, the group rose early Saturday morning to begin the battlefield tour. The group enjoyed the detailed description of the battle provided by the informational film at the Manassas National Battlefield Park visitor center, and examined the array of uniforms, weaponry, and other artifacts on display in that facility. The tour then moved to the surrounding hills and fields, where the students learned about the area's strategic importance, the impact that the lay of the land had on tactics, the decisions of Union Brigadier General Irvin McDowell and Confederate Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, the movements and actions of the opposing troops, the involvement of the local civilian population in the battle, and the sequence of events that led to the disorderly Union retreat back to Washington. Upon completing a thorough exploration of the hallowed ground overlooking Bull Run, the exhausted group returned to Philadelphia, satisfied that the outing had been a great success.


(Left) Participants in the SCENFAD Manassas field trip complete their battlefield tour beside the Stonewall Jackson statue atop Henry House Hill, the scene of savage fighting on July 21, 1861.  (Courtesy Jeffrey K. Bower.

            The SCENFAD members who participated in the trip would like to extend their gratitude to four people who played important roles in making this tour so memorable. First of all, Professors Jay Lockenour and Richard Immerman greatly aided the planning process, and without their help, the trip could never have happened. Second, Professor Gregory J. W. Urwin was our tour guide on the trip, and he expertly described the events of First Manassas as we moved about the battlefield. The knowledge he was able to impart to the group made the tour much more interesting for all present, and his high level of preparedness ensured that the trip ran more smoothly. Finally, SCENFAD would like to thank Jeffrey K. Bower, a Temple alumnus who lives in the Manassas area, for helping to find motel and restaurant accommodations, for working with Dr. Urwin to plan the group's movements in the field, and for adding an interesting and knowledgeable voice to our tour of the battlefields. Everyone greatly appreciates Mr. Bower's continued interest in giving back to Temple and mentoring its current students, and we look forward to having him join us again in the near future. Thanks again to all who helped in the execution of the trip, and we look forward to many more successful SCENFAD excursions!
 
 

ALUMNI NEWS

Harry Franqui-Rivera (M.A., 2002) has been accepted by the graduate program in history at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, and started there this fall. Harry is also writing two entries for the Encyclopedia Latina: History, Culture, Society - a four-volume reference devoted to Latinos in the United States that is being produced by Grolier Publishing. Harry's entries will cover the "Korean War" and the "65th U.S. Infantry Regiment," which is fitting, since the master's thesis he wrote at Temple under the direction of Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin was titled "Glory and Shame: The Ordeal of the Puerto Rican 65th U.S. Infantry Regiment during the Korean War, 1950-1953."

Alice L. George (Ph.D., 2001) will have her award-winning dissertation, "The Cuban Missile Crisis: Americans' Response to the Threat of Nuclear War," published in October 2003 by University of North Carolina Press under the title Awaiting Armageddon: How Americans Faced the Cuban Missile Crisis.

            For thirteen days in October 1962, the United States stood on the brink of nuclear war. Nikita Khrushchev's decision to place nuclear missiles in Cuba and John F. Kennedy's defiant response introduced the possibility of unprecedented cataclysm. The immediate threat of destruction entered America's classrooms and its living rooms. Awaiting Armageddon provides the first in-depth look at this crisis as it simmered outside of government offices, where ordinary Americans realized their government was unprepared to protect itself or its citizens from the dangers of nuclear war.

            During the seven days between Kennedy's announcement of a naval blockade of Cuba and Khrushchev's decision to withdraw Soviet nuclear missiles from the island, U.S. citizens absorbed the nightmare scenario unfolding on their television sets. An estimated 10,000,000 Americans fled their homes; millions more prepared shelters at home, clearing the shelves of supermarkets and gun stores. George's book captures the irrationality of the moment as Americans coped with dread and resignation, humor and pathos, terror and ignorance.

            In her examination of the public response to the missile crisis, George reveals cracks in the veneer of American confidence in the early years of the space age and demonstrates how the fears generated by Cold War culture blinded many Americans to the dangers of nuclear war until it was almost too late.

            According to Dr. Robert A. Divine, the distinguished American diplomatic historian who teaches at the University of Texas at Austin: "Alice George succeeds in exploring a neglected aspect of the much-studied Cuban missile crisis. By showing how the average American responded to the threat of Soviet missiles in Cuba, her book fills an important gap in the scholarly literature."
 

Craig Livingston (Ph.D. 2002) received a contract from Greg Kofford Books to publish From Above or Below: Mormon Leaders and Writers Respond to World Revolutions, 1840-1940, a revision of his dissertation, which he wrote under the direction of Dr. Richard H. Immerman. Based in Salt Lake City, Greg Kofford Books is a leading press for scholarship focusing on the Mormon religion. Craig currently chairs the Department of History, Government, and Geography at Montgomery College in Conroe, Texas.
 

Paul F. Zigo (M.A., 2000) has closed his twenty-six years as director of Off Campus Services at Brookdale Community College with a dual promotion. Paul has been named director of Brookdale's Center for World War II Studies and Conflict Resolution. He has also received a tenure-track faculty position in the college's History Department.

            Zigo played a leading role in establishing the Center for World War II Studies and Conflict Resolution, which strives to educate Americans about the political, economic, social, and military aspects of World War II through classroom instruction, exhibits, educational programs, and web-site informational pages provided on campus as well as off campus. The center also conducts programs that foster the concept of conflict resolution without aggression. The center has launched a World War II studies lecture series that runs each fall and spring. It has its own cable television show, "Triumphant Spirit: America's World War II Generation Speaks," which features interviews with veterans of the war and those who experienced life on the home front.

            In the classroom, Zigo will be primarily responsible for teaching such popular courses as "Recent American History" and the "History of World War II" starting in the fall of 2003.

            Zigo credits his new appointments to "the strength of my Temple University credentials and my association with one of the greatest history departments in the USA," but those who know him also realize that his talent, vision, and hard work had a lot to do with his well-deserved elevation.
 
 

URWIN'S CAMPAIGNS AND COMMANDERS SERIES
PICKS UP STEAM

            Shortly before Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin joined the Department of History at Temple University in the fall of 1999, he agreed to serve as the general editor of "Campaigns and Commanders," a new military history book series published by University of Oklahoma Press.

            Campaigns and Commanders blends traditional operational history and military biography with the "New Military History." The series features books on the world's battles, campaigns, and military commanders that are well contextualized in the political, sociological, institutional, and cultural aspects of war. The series provides practitioners of narrative military history with the chance to prove that they are conversant with the latest scholarship in their fields by incorporating it into their work. Campaigns and Commanders also offers practitioners of the New Military History the opportunity to write lively narratives that incorporate their findings and expose new scholarship to a wide audience. Each book is written to appeal to general readers, professional historians, and their students.

            Campaigns and Commanders enjoyed an auspicious debut in the spring of 2002 with the publication of its first title, Napoleon & Berlin: The Franco-Prussian War in North Germany, 1813, by Dr. Michael V. Leggiere of Louisiana State University at Shreveport. After garnering glowing reviews from top authorities on the Napoleonic Wars, such as Gunther E. Rothenberg, Napoleon & Berlin has received a signal honor.

            On April 7, 2003, the International Napoleonic Society announced that it had awarded Napoleon & Berlin First Prize among its 2002 Literary Awards. The prize was accompanied by a stipend of $2,500. The International Napoleonic Society was founded to promote the study of the Napoleonic Era in accordance with proper academic standards. The society's goal is to gather the leading minds in the field for the purpose of creating, reviewing, commenting upon, making awards to, and financially supporting Napoleonic scholarship.

            Napoleon & Berlin had to compete with fifteen other books on the Napoleonic era. The International Napoleonic Society's Literary Committee decided that Leggiere's book represented "a significant contribution to the study of the Napoleonic period as exemplified by the quality of research, originality, style, and analysis."

            The second volume in the Campaigns and Commanders Series is scheduled for release in the fall of 2003. It is Morning Star Dawn: The Powder River Expedition and the Northern Cheyennes,1876 by Jerome A. Greene, one of the most respected military historians employed by the National Park Service. Greene's book will cover the latter phases of the Sioux War of 1876, the conflict best known for the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

            A major strength of Greene's narrative history is its incorporation of both American Indian and U.S. Army perspectives on the attack that destroyed the village of Northern Cheyenne chief Morning Star.  Of momentous significance for the Cheyenne as well as the U. S. Army, this November 1876 encounter, coming exactly six months to the day after the Custer debacle at the Little Bighorn, was part of the Powder River Expedition conducted by Brigadier General George Crook against the Indians. Vital to the larger context of the Great Sioux War, the attack on Morning Star's village encouraged the eventual surrender of Crazy Horse and his Sioux followers.

            Unbiased in its delivery, Morning Star Dawn offers the most thorough modern scholarly assessment of the Powder River Expedition. It incorporates previously unsynthesized data from the National Archives, the Library of Congress, the U.S. Army Military History Institute, and other repositories, and provides an examination of all facets of the campaign leading to and following the destruction of Morning Star's village.

            Oklahoma will publish two Campaigns and Commanders titles in the spring of 2004, Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne's Legion in the Old Northwest by independent scholar Alan Gaff and Washita: The U.S. Army and the Southern Cheyennes, 1867-1869 by the prolific Jerome Greene. The series' fifth and sixth titles, "Never Come to Peace Again": Pontiac's Rebellion, 1763-65 by Dr. David Dixon of Slippery Rock University and Blue Water Creek and the First Sioux War by independent scholar R. Eli Paul, are supposed to be in bookstores by the fall of 2004.

            Campaigns and Commanders has nine other books under contract at present, including two more Napoleonic titles by Michael Leggiere and a new history of the Battle of First Bull Run by Edward G. Longacre, the widely published Temple Ph.D. and Civil War historian.
 
 

NEWS FROM THE DIRECTOR

Richard H. Immerman
 

            I have been writing about national security issues for about a quarter of a century. These are the issues that led me to Temple a dozen years ago. Nowhere else at that time could I join forces (pun intended) with first-rate minds and scholars such as Russ Weigley and David Rosenberg to establish a unique venture: the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy. I have now served as CENFAD's director for a decade. My interest in it, and the issues of national security that are responsible for my interest, have never waned.

            During this period, the subject of my own scholarship has varied; some might even suggest that it has evolved. That explains (in part) why I find CENFAD's diversity (it of course has also evolved) so exciting. Two constants have sustained my attention, nevertheless. One is the advising and decisionmaking apparatus employed in the formulation and implementation of national security policy and strategy, especially U.S. policy and strategy. The other is the role of intelligence, again, in the formulation and implementation of national security strategy. These constants have driven me to focus so intently on the Eisenhower administration. It sort of became my model - mostly for the "good," but sometimes for the "not-so-good."


(Right)  President George W. Bush on a recent visit to the Marine Corps Air Station at San Diego, California.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)

         As readers of Strategic Visions all know, CENFAD was ahead of the public and to a large extent the media curve in its concentration on the evolving crisis in Iraq. We will certainly continue both individually and institutionally to examine the war itself and its aftermath, the "occupation" (granted, the distinction between the two has become increasingly blurred). But I am going to exercise my prerogative as director to seize the opportunity provided by my control of this column to correlate my "constants" with recent revelations regarding the Bush Administration and the War in Iraq. Put another way, I am going to vent.  In the most fundamental sense, the advising/decisionmaking angle of Bush policy toward Iraq has intersected dramatically with the intelligence angle. From my vantage point as an academic, this intersection has captivated my imagination and caused me to all but recoil in horror. I'll explain. Much attention has been paid to President Bush's inclusion in his State of the Union Address of those now infamous sixteen words claiming that Saddam Hussein covertly sought to purchase uranium ore from Africa for the purpose of reconstituting (or sustaining) his nuclear program. At issue is why the president went public with this claim notwithstanding suspicions about its validity, suspicions that were expressed at the time and confirmed subsequently.


(Left) Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld speaking in Kabul, Afghanistan, September 7, 2003, during his recent tour of the Middle East.  (Courtesy U.S. Department of Defense)

            Several explanations have been offered. I honestly can't decide which one is worse. If forced to choose, I would probably end up selecting the interpretation that this administration has cooked the books, that it has politicized intelligence. I am currently writing a history of the CIA, and I can assert unequivocally that nothing troubled those "wise men" who were present at the CIA's creation in the early years of the Cold War more than the prospect that those entrusted with the nation's security would manipulate intelligence to serve a policy preference. I shudder to think that I may well be forced to conclude my history by at a minimum raising the possibility that this kind of politicization of intelligence pervades the current administration.

            Or there is the alternative explanation, which now that I think about it may be worse (and engages my academic interests no less). The National Intelligence Estimate (the basis for the State of the Union claim) included in its annex a footnote from the State Department: "[T]he claims of Iraqi pursuit of natural uranium in Africa are, in INR's [State's intelligence arm] assessment, highly dubious." According to press reports, however, Bush never read the footnote. He was briefed on the NIE but didn't read all of it. Are you kidding me? Eisenhower must be rolling over in his grave. But I learned from a Brookings expert with inside information that these press reports could well be wrong. His sources maintain that Bush did read the footnote but, his mind already made up (premature closure in the jargon of political psychology, another passion of mine), he dismissed it entirely. And that is supposed to make me feel better?

            As CENFAD's schedule of programs, about Iraq and many other subjects, develops over this academic year, we will no doubt be hearing a lot about intelligence, policy, and strategy. Evidently President Bush and his advisors could learn much from attending. Our nation might be more secure if they did. I would be interested in receiving your opinions as to whether CENFAD should revise its mission accordingly.



PHOTO ESSAY:
ON CUSTER'S TRAIL IN AUSTIN, TEXAS



During a recent visit to Austin, Texas, Dr. Gregory J. W. Urwin sought out the Arno-Novotny
House, formerly the Texas Institute for the Blind, which Major General George Armstrong
Custer used as his headquarters during the start of Reconstruction in 1865-66.  The structure
is beautifully preserved on the University of Texas campus.  In the montage above,
Urwin sits in the same spot occupied by Custer and his staff nearly 140 years ago.
 Urwin continues to maintain an interest in Custer, who was the subject of his first
book, Custer Victorious:  The Civil War Battles of General George Armstrong Custer.
 (Historic photos courtesy Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument.
Contemporary photos courtesy Cathy Kunzinger Urwin and Edward G. Urwin)

SUPPORT CENFAD

            The Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy constantly seeks to expand its support base by recruiting more members. Membership levels begin at $15.00 per year for current Temple students, both graduate and undergraduate. A regular membership is $30.00, a sustaining membership is $250.00, and a lifetime membership is $1,000.

            Anyone who joins at the two highest levels will receive an autographed copy of Russell F. Weigley's classic book, The Age of Battles: The Quest for Decisive Warfare from Breitenfeld to Waterloo (1991).

            Readers of Strategic Visions are encouraged to enlist themselves or their friends as members of the Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy by making use of the form that accompanies this newsletter.

            Members receive a subscription to Strategic Visions and free admission to all Center activities. The Center also welcomes tax-deductible gifts from individuals and corporations interested in supporting its mission.

            Make out your check to Temple University -- Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy, and mail it to:

Center for the Study of Force and Diplomacy
Department of History
Temple University
Gladfelter Hall (025-24)
1115 W. Berks Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122