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01812/Computer and Information Sciences
Additional courses are listed under The School of Business and Management.
C055. Computers and Applications (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisite: First-level Core science course. With the explosion of computer technology, knowledge of computing applications as tools for all disciplines has become a necessary asset. This course will introduce the student to a hardware and software overview, use of the computer as a tool to process information, and ethical and social implications of computing. The laboratory portion of this class will provide students with hands-on experience to supplement the lecture material.
C059. FORTRAN Programming for Science and Technology (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture,
2 hr. lab) (SB) FS
Prerequisite: First-Level Core Science Course. A study of the FORTRAN programming language and its application to problem solving in science and technology. Laboratory work and programming assignments will illustrate the application of the computer to course material studied in the SA course used as a prerequisite. (No credit given to students who have completed CIS C061, 0067, 0071, C081, or C091.) C061. Programming in Pascal (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) (MB/D4) FS
Prerequisite: First-level Core Math. course. Introduces students to computers and computer programming. Topics covered include the general characteristics of computers, techniques of problem solving and algorithm specifications, and the debugging and testing of computer programs in Pascal. This course is a prerequisite for major courses in the College of Arts and Sciences. (No credit given to students who have completed CIS C059, 0067, 0071, C081, or C091.)
0066. Mathematical Concepts in Computing I (3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisite: Mathematics C075 or C085 (may be taken concurrently). (No credit for students who have completed Mathematics 0141.) Introduction to the mathematical concepts fundamental to computer science. Topics include number systems, natural numbers, integers, and ratios; set and relations including equivalence, congruence, and order; functions and mappings and Boolean Algebra. Students will also learn formal methods for writing mathematical proofs, including direct and indirect proofs, enumerability, and diagonal proofs, converse and contrapositive, and induction. Additional topics include recursion and recursive algorithms. Applications to computer science will be illustrated. (Students planning to take advanced courses in mathematics should take Math 0141.)
0067. Program Design and Abstraction (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)
Prerequisite: Math 75/85 and CIS C061 or equivalent. Introduction to programming methods, software engineering, and procedural and data abstraction. Coverage will include top-down design and modular programming, software development process, module documentation including preconditions and postconditions, debugging and testing programs. Data types covered include simple data types, arrays, structs, and strings. Programming techniques include at least one technique for searching and sorting an array and an introduction to file processing. Coverage will include an introduction to the use and implementation of abstract data types as C++ classes. There is a weekly scheduled laboratory which is coordinated with the class. (No credit for students who have completed CIS C081.)
0068. Data Structures (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisite: CIS 0066 and 0067. A continuation of CIS 0067. Understanding and use of data abstraction through C++ classes. Understanding and use of the following Abstract Data Types: strings, stacks, queues, linked lists, binary trees, trees. Introduction to expression evaluation and other applications. Introduction to recursion and object-oriented programming in C++ including inheritance.
C071. Computer Programming in C (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2hr. lab) FS
Prerequisite: First-Level Core Math. Course. Introduces students to computer and computer programming. Topics covered include the general characteristics of computers, techniques of problem solving and alogrithm specification, and the debugging and testing of computer programs in the C language. (No credit for students who have taken CIS C059, C061, 0067, or 0081.)
0072. Introduction to Computer Architecture (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2
hr. lab) FS
Prerequisite: CIS 0067. The objective is a detailed understanding of one computer architecture seen as the platform for writing software. Introduction to basic digital hardware principles, computer organization, and the interplay of hardware and software features. It contrasts the chosen machine architecture with possible alternatives. Assembly language is taught mainly in the laboratory and is used to clarify and make concrete the concepts discussed in class.
0153. External File Structures (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisite: CIS 0068 or 0083. Illustration of file processing techniques. Sequential access for batch processing; direct access for on-line processing/relative and indexed: sequential file structures. Secondary keys and other retrieval schema for random access. Currently uses the programming language COBOL.
0166. Mathematical Concepts in Computing II (3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisites: CIS C061 or 0067 and C066. Concepts include combinations, permutations, binomial and multinomial coefficients, recurrence relations, big 0 notation, finite probability, introduction to predicate and propositional calculus and program verification, and introduction to trees and graphs. Applications to computer science will be illustrated. May not be taken for mathematics credit. (No credit for students who have completed Math 0205.)
0203. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture,
2 hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072 or permission of the instructor. Introduction to the issues and ideas of artificial intelligence using LISP and PROLOG. Knowledge of representation, search, problem solving, learning and mathematical reasoning.
0205. Programming Languages (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072. The purpose of this course is to gain exposure to the major concepts of design and implementation of programming languages with an eye toward understanding how these concepts apply to several programming languages, notably FORTRAN, Ada, C, Pascal, and Lisp.
0207. Introduction to Systems Programming and Operating Systems (4 s.h./3
hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisites: CIS 0068 and 0072. Improve the understanding of the organization of computer systems and of software components for representing, storing, and retrieving information. Examine in detail peripheral equipment and interactions with network equipment. Study of basic software components.
0211. Automata, Computability, and Languages (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072 or permission of instructor. Finite automata, their limitations and capabilities, and KleenÕs theorem or regular expressions. Other types of automata and their events. Turing machine and computability, computable functions, and halting problems. Introduction to context-free languages. Syntactical analysis of such languages with application to translation.
0217. Computer Architecture (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072. Concepts include levels of analysis: structure level, program level, register transfer level, logic design level, and circuit level; switching circuit technologies; central processor unit, instruction set architectures, control unit, and data paths; main memory organizations; arithmetic/logic unit, integer arithmetic, floating-point arithmetic, bus structures including single-bus and multi-bus, bus control, and direct memory access.
0220. Computer Graphics and Image Processing (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture,
2 hr. lab.) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072. An analysis of the techniques used in computer manipulation of two- and three-dimensional images. Hardware and software for displaying images, two- and three-dimensional transformations, the hidden line problem, picture processing, character recognition, and two-dimensional filtering.
W223. Data Structures and Algorithms (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)
Prerequisites: CIS 0068 and 0166. CIS 0166 may be taken concurrently. Program style organization and design with continued emphasis on the use of abstract data types and the object-oriented design paradigm. Comparative analysis of searching and sorting algorithms and data structures. Data structures include strings, heaps, priority queues, binary and general trees, AVL trees, B-trees, and graphs. Sorting algorithms include insertion sort, heapsort, mergesort, and quicksort. Searching algorithms include binary search, hashing, breadth-first search and depth-first search. Program structures include polymorphism, virtual functions, class derivatives and class libraries. Students will gain experience working in a group on at least one moderate-size project.
0240. User Interface Design (4 s.h./3 hr. lect., 2 hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0130 or 0330 and 0153; or CIS 0207 and W223, or permission of the instructor. Understand and apply the basic principles of human-computer interaction and user-centered design to computer interface design. Analyze and solve interface design and system integration problems. Create prototype interfaces in a visual programming language, compare different graphical user interfaces (GUI) and standards, apply guidelines for window, menu and other dialogue techniques including single user and collaborative applications, evaluate usability, and compare interface design methodologies.
0242. Discrete Structures (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072. Introduction to algebraic structures fundamental to various areas of computer science. Graphs, planar graphs, algorithms on graphs and their analysis, sequential machines and their minimization, semi-groups, and groups and their application to computer science.
0272. Computer Languages for Non-numeric and Linguistic Processing (4
s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0068, 0066, and 0072. For students in the linguistics program, CIS C061, and a course in linguistics. Designed for students in the linguistics program as well as CIS majors. A study of programming languages which are oriented toward nonnumerical and linguistic processing. The goal is to achieve facility in LISP programming and to gain understanding of the major issues in natural language processing and knowledge representation with an eye toward LISP and implementation of some important techniques.
0305. Real Time Computer Systems (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisite: CIS 0207. Introduction to the problems and techniques of real-time data acquisition and analysis. Topics will include analog to digital to analog conversion, synchronous and asynchronous serial I/O techniques, telecommunication protocols, error detection and correction techniques, an introduction to Fouriers series and the frequency domain, and an introduction to digital signal processing.
0307. Operating Systems (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisites: CIS 0207 and W223. The objective is to understand the functionality, implementation approaches, and use of operating systems in stand-alone and distributed systems. The course is concept oriented and describes traditional, network, and distributed operating systems. It uses UNIX in the laboratory as an example of a modern operating system.
0320. Computer Networks and Communications (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2
hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0207 and W223. Introduction to computer networks and communications. Local and wide area networks. Network topology and routing. Internet and ISO protocols. Applications including remote procedure calls, remote logon, and file transfer. Network operating systems.
0324. Compiler Design (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) 96-98
Prerequisites: CIS 0207 and 0223. A laboratory-oriented study of the fundamentals of higher level languages. Toward acquiring an in-depth understanding of the structure, organization, and implementation of a higher level language translator. Translator components and component interfaces. Students are expected to implement a translator that generates an assembly or intermediate level code and supports a dynamic run-time environment.
0331. Principles of Database Systems (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)
Prerequisites: CIS 0207 and W223. This course will cover the fundamentals of database systems essential for information management. It will provide an understanding of data modelling, database design, and database implementation. The laboratory component will utilize common database packages and the SQL language.
W338. Software Engineering (4 s.h./3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab) FS
Prerequisites: CIS 0207 and CIS W223 (one of which may be taken concurrently with CIS 338). This course presents the general principles that serve as the foundation of software engineering. The student is introduced to the broader context of system analysis, learns how total system requirements are analyzed and how decisions are made to allocate various functions among hardware, software, and people. The software lifecycle is examined. The course presents some professional issues, including accountability of the software engineer in complex systems and legal issues and laws that relate to software. Introduces database concepts and graphical user interfaces.
0339. Projects in Computer Science (4 s.h./ 3 hr. lecture, 2 hr. lab)
Prerequisites: CIS 0338 and senior standing. Team-oriented design and implementation of large programming project. Topics will be proposed by students for review and acceptance early in the semester. Students are encouraged to use the departmentÕs list of project suggestions as case studies in CIS 0338 and to perform initial specification and analysis of their projects in CIS 0338. Students will provide written documentation of their completed projects and will demonstrate the operation of their completed projects in an oral presentation. Projects will be solicited from industry and other departments at Temple.
0350. Seminar on Topics in Computer Science (3-4 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: Permission of instructor. Current problems in computer science.
0397-0398. Independent Study (1-6 s.h.) FS
Prerequisite: Consultation with faculty member and approval of department chairperson. Readings and/or papers under supervision of a faculty member.
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C050. Introduction to Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) (IN/D3) FS
Introduction to the structure and issues of the criminal justice system. The prevalence and nature of crime and the response of justice agencies to it, ranging from arrest of suspects, prosecution, adjudication, and correctional treatment of offenders.
0101. Introduction to Corrections (3 s.h.) (D3) FS
(Formerly 0060.) A survey course detailing the post-adjudicatory stages of the criminal justice system. Beginning with sentencing, an overview of the alternatives for dealing with convicted persons. Institutional and community dispositions. 0102. Introduction to Law Enforcement (3 s.h.) (D3) FS
(Formerly 0075.) Survey of major trends and issues in law enforcement. The history and contemporary operation of police organizations, as well as the legal framework within which they operate. Police behavior and attitudes, especially as they affect the relationship of police to the community they serve.
0103. Criminal Courts and Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) FS
(Formerly 0090.) Description and explanation of the operation of criminal courts in state and federal jurisdictions. The origin and development of the criminal court, its central role in criminal justice, and issues in administration and case law. 0105. Introduction to Juvenile Justice (3 s.h.) (D3) FS
Prerequisite: C050 or permission of instructor. The origins and development of the juvenile justice system in this country and its various decision components, significant themes, issues, and paradoxes. 0113. Correctional Administration (3 s.h.) 96-98
The organization of a department of corrections is examined with emphasis on specific administrative principles required for effective conduct and operations.
0130. Nature of Crime (3 s.h.) FS
An overview of various perspectives on crime. Explores crime in terms of definitional issues, the amount of crime committed, geographical patterns of criminal activity, types of criminal behavior, characteristics of persons who commit crime, and the variety of explanations for criminal behavior.
0141. Victims in Society (3 s.h.) FS
The social and psychological consequences of victimization, primarily related to crime victims. The anticipation of crime, the probability of becoming a victim, theory and evidence related to victim precipitation, as well as the social consequences of stigmatization, isolation, and/or movement. The psychological responses to being a victim including immediate, proximate, and long-term patterns of response.
W145. Planned Change in Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) FSv Prerequisite: C050 or permission of instructor. Introduction to strategies and techniques of change in criminal justice. Important theories, methods of analysis, and techniques employed in changing individuals, organizations, and communities.
0150. Introduction to Criminal Law (3 s.h.) (D-3) FS
Substantive criminal law and legal processes. Basic concepts applicable to all crime such as the elements of a crime, defenses, complicity, causation, and inchoate crimes. Students learn to find legal materials through lecture and library research exercises.
0153. Police-Community Relations (3 s.h.) 96-98
Introduction to community-based approaches to law enforcement, the interaction of the police with the community, and the impact of police interventions at the community level. Situational policing, foot-patrol, team policing, and community policing considered in their contribution to community safety and crime prevention.
0160. Introduction to Criminal Justice Research (3 s.h.) FS
(Formerly 0301.) Basic principles and issues relevant to understanding data sources and research in the criminal area. Study of the traditional areas of statistics and social science research methodology, with special emphasis on research problems in criminal justice. Exposure to the uniform crime report, victimization surveys, court and prison statistics, evaluation studies, and agency reports.
0161. Criminal Justice Research and Analysis (3 s.h.) FS
(Formerly 0302.) A continuation of 0301 to extend and deepen the studentÕs understanding of criminal justice research methods and evaluation. To provide understanding of statistics widely used in criminal justice research as well as their applications; to familiarize students with the strengths, weaknesses and peculiarities of various types of criminal justice data; and to introduce the utility and conduct of evaluation in criminal justice. The student will learn computer based analyses of standard criminal justice data.
0175. Rehabilitation of the Offender (3 s.h.) 96-98
Community and institutional correctional interventions are considered as the appropriateness of various treatments for certain kinds of offenders, problems in providing services in correctional settings, and research findings on the effectiveness of correctional interventions.
0201. White Collar Crime (3 s.h.) FS
Classic white collar crimes, such as commercial fraud and embezzlement, as well as newer crimes like computer fraud and corporate piracy. A review of applicable laws with special emphasis on practical aspects of investigation and prosecution of white collar crime.
0202. Issues in Criminal Procedure: Law Enforcement Practices and Procedures
(3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisite: 0150 Introduction to Criminal Law or permission of instructor. The legal principles that govern the detection and investigation of crime: undercover investigation, interrogations and confessions, search and seizure, arrest, wiretapping, and grand jury investigations. The operation of the exclusionary rule and alternatives to the rule.
0212. Community Corrections (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: 0101 Introduction to Corrections or permission of instructor. Probation and parole. Supervision of offenders in the community, the role of probation and parole, community supervision, revocation of community placements, and other non-institutional alternatives.
0236. Prisons in America (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: 0101 Introduction to Corrections or permission of instructor. Prison in American society, prison life and prison management, prison culture, guard culture and moves, stress, suicide, and sexual violence. Field trips to federal, state, and local institutions may be organized.
0243. The American Jury System (3 s.h.) 96-98
A comparative survey of the jury system and the significant developments in the evolution of the American criminal trial jury. Classroom lectures and discussions. Systematic in-court observation on jury trials required. The themes of the jury as a social system and perspective stressing law and the social sciences.
0244. Court Administration (3 s.h.) 96-98
(Formerly 104.) Prerequisite: 0103 Criminal Courts or permission of instructor. A survey of the development and current organization of local and state courts. The emphasis will be on current administrative practices and procedures. The course will also examine the role of court administration in judicial proceedings and the effects of management programs on judicial discretion.
0247. Criminal Procedure: Prosecution and Adjudication (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: 0150 Introduction to Criminal Law or permission of instructor. The legal principles governing the post investigation phase of the criminal justice process: bail, pretrial detention, arraignment, preliminary hearings, guilty pleas, right to counsel, speedy trial, double jeopardy, and the right to trial by jury. Practical problems these rules pose for the criminal justice system.
0250. Police Organization and Management (3 s.h.) 96-98
(Formerly 0120.) Prerequisite: 0102 Introduction to Law Enforcement. Historical and contemporary management practices as applied to law enforcement organizations are examined, with particular concern for assessing police management accountability. Theories of organization and management are examined with regard to the police role and the efficient and effective provision of law enforcement services to the community.
0255. Correctional Law (3 s.h.) 96-98
(Formerly 0155.) Prerequisite: C050 or permission of instructor. Post-conviction facets of the criminal justice system are examined in detail. Special emphasis is placed upon the law that governs the relationships of inmates, police, courts, and correctional staff during the institutionalization of the offender. The constitutional rights of both inmates and correctional staff are stressed.
0278. Urban Crime Patterns (3 s.h.) FS
The spatial dimensions and patterns of crime and how they vary with respect to other variables in the urban environment. Possible explanations of crime, using both current literature and Philadelphia statistics.
0285. Environmental Criminology (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: 0130 Nature of Crime or permission of instructor. An introduction to the interrelationship between built environments and criminal behavior. Steps taken by architects and urban planners to build safer neighborhoods discussed.
0294. Organized Crime (3 s.h.) FS
Classic and contemporary views of organized crime. Discussion and lectures on the problems of definition, the acquisition of knowledge, and efforts to combat organized crime groups and their crimes. The blending of past and current sociological, psychological, and legal conceptions and research on the topic.
0303. Criminal Justice Practicum (3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisite: Departmental approval; Corequisite: 0304. Field service training with law enforcement and other criminal justice agencies, rehabilitation and prevention programs, and community organizations dealing with the crime problem. Opportunity for students to clarify career interests, synthesize prior knowledge from the classroom with direct experience, critically examine the criminal justice system in operation, and sharpen analytic and observational skills.
0304. Criminal Justice Practicum Lab (3-9 s.h.) FS
Corequisite: 0303. Field Service Training is provided with law enforcement and other criminal justice agencies, rehabilitation and prevention programs, and community organizations dealing with the crime problem. Allows students to clarify career interests, synthesize prior knowledge from the classroom with direct experience, critically examine the criminal justice system in operation, and sharpen analytic and observational skills.
0305. Youth and Crime (3 s.h.) 96-98
(Formerly Youth Gangs and Crime.) The changing quality and quantity of crime by youth gangs from the turn of the century to the present. The neighborhood context; cultural and ethnic values as expressed in gangs; the structure, sex composition, and role allocation in the group; political street gangs; police treatment of gangs; and the future of the one-time gang member.
0315. Sexual Crimes and the Law (3 s.h.) FS
This course will explore the definition and nature of sexual crimes, the experiences of victims of sexual violence, and the reaction of the criminal justice system (police, prosecution, courts) to sexual offenses. Emphasis will be on rape, child sexual abuse, and treatment of sexual offenders. Other areas of study include victims of sexual assault, pornography, and female sexual offenders.
0320. Mental Disorder and Criminal Law (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: C050. Introduction to Criminal Justice or permission of instructor. The intersection of psychiatric and mental health perspectives with criminal law and criminal justice. Responsibility, insanity, and incompetence reviewed and issues relating to the prediction of dangerousness stressed. The classification and diagnosis of criminal behavior through psychiatric perspectives, therapeutic intervention and civil commitment of "dangerous" persons, as well as issues related to the "criminally insane."
0325. Capital Punishment (3 s.h.) 96-98
An examination of the highly controversial subject of the death penalty. The history of capital punishment in America and the types of offenses to which it has been applied; arguments for and against its use; its status in current legislation; significant cases; the current death row population and the likelihood of execution; public attitudes toward capital punishment; and the moral issues it raises.
0330. Violence, Crime, and Justice (3 s.h.) 96-98
Violence in its diverse aspects - collective and individual - questions about its nature and causes. Of particular interest are definitions of violence: when is violence criminal, when political? In addition to discussion of the causes of violence, emphasis on societyÕs response to violent acts.
R335. Urban Minorities and the Criminal Justice System (3 s.h.) F
Provides a framework for a better understanding of the basic social, cultural, and geographic factors associated with race and crime in the United States. Social and cultural minorities are examined with particular reference to blacks and the criminal justice system. Consideration is also given to the argument of the declining significance of race and the impact of this notion on the criminal justice system.
0340. Women and Criminal Justice ( 3 s.h.) 96-98
An analysis of women and their involvement in the criminal justice system. Examines the historical, sociological, and legal patterns of women accused of crime, women as victims of crime, and women as professionals in the criminal justice system.
0345. Reform Strategies in Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) 96-98
Important theories, methods of analysis, and techniques employed in changing individuals, communities, and organizations. Themes common to change efforts involving each of the kinds of targets. Selected models and strategies used by change agents and the problems, as well as examples of deliberate efforts to bring about change in criminal justice.
0346. Crime and Social Policy (3 s.h.) 96-98
Social policy implications of various perspectives on crime. Crime statistics, geographic patterns of crime, types of criminal behavior, and criminological theories in terms of their policy implications. Recent and proposed reforms and recommendations of national crime commissions and other standard-setting bodies.
0350. Community and Crime Prevention (3 s.h.) 96-98
Community-based generation of crime; neighborhood structure and social control. Analysis of crime prevention theory and community organization concerns.
0353. Critical Issues in Law Enforcement (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: 0102 Introduction to Law, or permission of instructor. In-depth examination of the major issues confronting law enforcement during the 1980Õs and beyond. Recent and recommended organizational changes, the impact of technology on policing, selection processes and issues, causes of work-related stress, police responses to victimless crimes, and community crime prevention.
0365. Psychology and Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) 96-98
The contribution of psychology to our understanding of various stages and decisions within the criminal justice process and non-pathological criminals and their behavior. The psychological implications of criminal behavior, criminal justice decision making, jury selection, witness recall, sentencing, prisonization, and correctional treatment.
0375. Independent Study (3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing in Criminal Justice; 3.0 grade point average; departmental approval. For students wishing to study intensively a specific topic in consultation with a faculty member. Not intended to be a substitute for any required course. The faculty-adviser must be contacted during preregistration for the semester when Independent Study will be taken. Readings and/or research paper. The proposal must be filed in the department office before the end of the first two weeks of the semester.
0380. Comparative Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: C050 Introduction to Criminal Justice or permission of instructor. Philosophies, practices, and institutions of criminal justice in other countries.
0385. Information Systems in Criminal Justice (3 s.h.) 96-98
Analytic capacity, efficiency, and effectiveness of information systems and computer analysis in criminal justice. Various systems used by police, court, and corrections.
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This web version written by Mary England 9/97
Updates in maroon print
Comments and questions concerning this web version of the bulletin or requests for adding reference marks for linking to subsections of a page may be sent to Mary England.