Undergraduate Bulletin 1996-1998

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Course Descriptions


Unless otherwise noted, the following courses may be taken without prerequisites.


C055. Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology (4 s.h.) (SB/D2) FS
Human populations, both past and present, are the focus of biological anthropology. In this course, the biological characteristics of human populations are studied in terms of their adaptive significance. Students will be introduced to concepts in medical and population genetics, review studies of human morphological and physiological variation, and learn basic concepts in evolutionary biology and human paleontology.

R060. Introduction to Anthropology: A Four-Field Integrated Approach to Race and Racism (3 s.h.) 96-98
This 14 week introductory Anthropology course is designed to introduce students to important scholarly and practical concepts in the study of "race" and racism historically and across cultures. It builds upon the important contributions of four-field anthropological practice to our understanding of the ways societies have constructed racial categories and meanings and deployed racialized hierarchies. Students will be asked to read a variety of basic materials in linguistics, biological anthropology, ethnology, and archaeology. This will be supplemented with student efforts to analyze popular representations of race to acquire a familiarity with the important debates in contemporary social science and politics.

C061. Cultures of the World (3 s.h.) (IS) FS
An introductory survey of various cultures from different regions of the world. Ethnographic case studies will be compared to show diversity and continuity in human life styles. A major emphasis will be placed on the impact of transglobal economic, political, and sociocultural change in the 20th-century.

C064. American Culture (3 s.h.) (AC) FS
This course will provide an overview of the anthropological view of American culture. Ethnographic views of particular lifestyle groups based on ethnicity, region, class, age, etc. will be explored. Studies of the historical development of relationships and conflicts between groups will also be included. These will be linked together by the literature on the overarching themes, values, rituals, and institutions which characterize the national culture.

C065. Origins of Cultural Diversity (3 s.h.) (IS) 96-98
Many non-US cultures have long, distinguished histories which can be traced ultimately to a common origin. This course examines the evolution of these cultures through the use of archaeological and paleoanthropological data, which ranges from 2 million years ago to the time of recorded history. Topics include the emergence of culture, the spread of human populations throughout the world, the origins of agriculture, and the rise of civilizations. The persistence of hunter/gatherer and other small-scale societies into the 19th and 20th centuries is also investigated.


W120. Fundamentals of Cultural Anthropology (3 s.h.) (D3) FS
A review of theoretical approaches to cultural anthropology. Designed for anthropology majors, but useful for students in other social sciences and the humanities. Emphasis on contrasting points of view and on the relationship between research methods and theoretical positions.

0124. Fundamentals of Archaeology (3 s.h.) (D3) FS
An introduction to the theories and methods used in archaeological anthropology. Topics include excavation techniques, analysis of material remains, and reconstruction of ancient cultural patterns.

0125. Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology (4 s.h.) (D2) FS
An introduction to the biological study of human populations, past and present. The biological characteristics of human populations are studied in terms of their adaptive significance. Includes basic genetics and the genetics of human groups. A review of modern human skeletal/muscular anatomy is followed by consideration of evolutionary changes in human lineage. Concludes with lectures on human growth and aging, human physiology, and human demography.

0127. Fundamentals of Linguistic Anthropology (3 s.h.) (D4) FS
An exploration of basic linguistic concepts from a social and cultural anthropological perspective. Fundamentals of linguistic analyses, the study of language change and dialect variation, and issues in the ethnography of speaking.

0151. Economic Anthropology (3 s.h.) F
Investigates the political economies of non-industrial societies—how these are articulated with, transformed by, and incorporated into the modern world systems. Includes the history and development of theories of political economy on the one hand, and detailed studies of selected local and regional groups on the other. Although 'tribal' and 'peasant' economies have 'internal' conditions of development, these cannot be fully understood without the wider context in which the majority of them exist and have always existed.

0152. Political Anthropology: Traditional Societies and Modern States (3 s.h.) S
This course will examine the rise of political anthropology as a specialized field, in relation both to others within anthropology, as well as to the social sciences generally. This perspective will be achieved by a critical reading of some of the classical texts in the field in the light of recent developments in the relation between political economy and anthropology. Among the issues addressed will be: the nature of politics and under-development and the articulation of modes of production and social formation.

0158. Fundamentals of Culture and Visual Communication (3 s.h.) F
Prerequisites: Anthro 0060, 0061, or equivalent. A survey of theoretical approaches to an anthropological understanding of visual/pictorial communication. Among the topics explored: theories of culture and communication, models of both social and visual communication, perception, cross-cultural aesthetics, non-verbal communication as well as photography, film, and mass media. Emphasis will be placed on the value of constructing ethnographies of visual/pictorial communication. This course has been designed for anthropology majors specializing in the studies of visual communication, but it is also useful for sociology, FMA, and mass communication majors. Course consists of required readings, screenings, and active class participation. No exams. Students keep a journal and write several short papers.

0161. Human Paleontology (3 s.h.) 96-98
Designed to familiarize students with both theoretical and methodological frameworks for interpreting the human fossil record with a review of the synthetic theory of evolution, sociobiological concepts, and procedures in taxonomy and phylogenetic reconstruction. Attention given to the origin of the human lineage and what the fossils of that lineage tell us about the evolution of anatomical systems that are peculiar to humans.

0162. Human Biology of Modern Populations (3 s.h.) S
An investigation of how physical anthropologists approach the study of living human populations. It will explore topics in population genetics, demography, physiology, growth and development, disease, nutrition, ecology, and energetics.

0163. Human Population Genetics (3 s.h.) S
This course is designed to acquaint the undergraduate major in Anthropology (especially those in the human biology specialization) with the fundamental concepts of population genetics with particular relevance to human genetics. Although the course, as indicated, has a particular emphasis on genetics, the influence of environmental effects will be especially appreciated in this course, as the impact of culture is so dramatic, even with respect to human genetic evolution.

0169. South American Archaeology (3 s.h.) S
A survey of prehistoric cultures of South America. Concentrates on (1) the initial entry and spread of human populations into South America and the West Indies, (2) origins of tropical and highland agriculture, (3) the rise of urbanism, civilization, and the state in the Andes, and (4) the impact of prehistoric cultures on the environment.

0172. Archaeology of North America (3 s.h.) 96-98
This course surveys the cultural development of native peoples from the time of the initial colonization of North America to the historic period. The cultural diversity seen across the continent at any given point in time is dramatic and difficult to cover in detail within the scope of a single course. Common and contrasting themes in development are stressed and information is organized by cultural/geographic regions or "areas," and chronological periods. The emphasis of the course is on the peoples found north of Mexico.

0211. Anthropology and Culture Change (3 s.h.) F
Examines competing series of society and explanations of change and development. The first half of the course exposes the network of assumptions underlying various theories of change and investigates their implications; it shows the commonality of social thought in different societies and challenges notions about the uniqueness of Western thought. The second half of the course deals with selected instances of historical change and transformation: the rise of capitalism, the colonial encounter and decolonization, the transition to socialism, and the crisis of modernity.

0212. Medical Anthropology (3 s.h.) F
An integration of the cultural and biological perspectives on health, disease, and therapies developed from the anthropological study of human diversity. Evolving patterns of birth, disease, and death; the effects of modernization on health; cross-cultural variations in definitions of illness and therapies; and conflicts between health care systems.

0220. Environmental Physiology (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisite: Anthropology 0125. A survey of physiological and biochemical variability in human populations examined as a function of environmental adaptation. Emphasis on the responses of different populations to discernible environmental stresses.

0223. Comparative Law (3 s.h.) S
Prerequisite: An introductory course in anthropology or consent of instructor. Law as a universal characteristic of all culture defined and discussed. The relationships between law and other forms of social control and the relationship between law and economic, social, and political systems. Special problems related to law in complex societies and legal change.

0224. Art and Anthropology (3 s.h.) 96-98
This course serves as an introduction to research by anthropologists on non-Western arts and the worlds they come from and are brought into. It is also an introduction to examples of art developed and used by some non-Western peoples. By implication, it raises questions concerning Western arts and their social and cultural contexts. It explores diverse systems of visual and artistic representation, symbolic and political expressions, and place of satire, parody, and lampoon in the making of visual traditions. Other topics include a critical assessment of the "primity art" category, art as a cultural system, comparative aesthetics, performance (music, movement, mime, etc.) as artistic expression, tourist/airport art forms, among others. A field trip to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York may be required.

0241. Introduction to Visual Anthropology (3 s.h.) S
This course offers a review of old and new versions of Visual Anthropology, or, stated in terms preferred at Temple University, the Anthropology of Visual Communication. The course offers a theoretical overview and perspective that applies concepts of culture to processes of visual communication as well as concepts of communication to visual culture. Lectures, readings, and coursework will focus on understanding relationships between culture constructs, visual codes, and social/cultural contexts. Each semester, emphasis will be given to several general topics, including the diversity of pictorial codes and modes used on an everyday basis; socialization and interpretation; and images as cultural documents. This semester we will attend to four topics, specifically (1) the imagery of National Geographic, (2) graffiti, (3) postcards, and (4) snapshots. Students will do observational exercises on/with each topic.

0248. Introduction to Primates (3 s.h.) S
This is a three-part introduction to the order Primates. The first part deals with the classification, diversity and anatomical adaptation of the living primates. The second part is a survey of primate phylogeny as revealed by the fossil record. Then, we look at the behavior of non-human primates.

0270. Early Comparative Civilizations (3 s.h.) F
This comparative analysis of the rise of early civilizations uses archaeological and historical information to examine the development of ancient societies. It focuses on problems of the neolithic revolution and the autochthonous transformation of kin-based communities into stratified societies and the subsequent formation and development of archaic states.

0273. Japanese Culture (3 s.h.) S
Introduction to traditional and contemporary Japanese culture. Topics covered include: early literature, aesthetic principles as expressed in art and architecture, religion, gender roles, Japan's shifting relationships with the outside world, rural communities and urban centers in the 20th-century, and the construction of the self in modern Japan. (Cross-listed with Asian Studies 0253).

0274. The Anthropology of Modern China (3 s.h.) S
This course provides an introduction to the culture and society of the contemporary People's Republic of China. The first half of the course explores the dramatic changes in both rural and urban sectors of Chinese society since the turn of the century, with a particular focus on post-1949 socialist transformations. The second half of the course examines such topics as gender and the status of women, ethnic minorities, religion and healing, the self and society, the party and the state, and P.R.C. narratives of modernity. Throughout, the P.R.C. will be examined as a society which embodies a distinctively Chinese synthesis of tradition and modernity. (Cross-listed with Asian Studies 0254.)

W301. History of Anthropological Theory (3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisites: At least two courses in anthropology or permission of instructor. The development of anthropological thought from the mid-19th century to present. Major theoretical schools, such as evolutionism, historicalism, functionalism, structuralism, cross-cultural methods, and the new ethnography.

0313. Problems in Social-Cultural Anthropology (3 s.h.) 96-98
A variable topic course whose content usually changes each time it is offered. Provides an opportunity for instructors and students to explore specialized topics of current interest. Recent topics have included: the development of Hispanic-American communities in the U.S., women and literature in Heian Japan, ethnic communities in Philadelphia, and gender, literacy, and autobiography. Consult department chair or adviser for current topic.

0315. Theory and Method in Cultural Anthropology (3 s.h.) S
The relationship between ethnographic theory and various investigative methodologies. Analysis of different ethnographies in terms of their theoretical bases and data-gathering processes. Focus will vary from semester to semester.

0321. Methods in Archaeology (3 s.h.) 96-98
Prerequisites: Recommendations vary depending on course topic, check with instructor. A series of practical, topical courses which deal with aspects of archaeological fieldwork and laboratory analysis. The topic or focus of the course varies by semester and includes: field methods; ceramic analysis; lithic analysis; soils and stratigraphy. Because the topic changes, students may take 321 more than once.

0322. Indigenous Media (3 s.h.) S
This course critically reviews the relationships between ethnographic film and indigenous forms of self-representation in video, film, photography and art. Native, minority, and elite visual texts from several societies will be compared with each other and with forms of pictorial representation in contemporary Western societies. The course first explores the emergence of non-professional models of indigenous expression in written forms focused on a reading of indigenous texts written by perceptive individuals. Second, we will examine pictorial forms by viewing and analyzing films and video programs made by indigenous individuals and associations. Examples will come from North and South America, Australia, and India, specifically the Navajo, the Inuit, the Kayapo, the Walpiri, as well as Indian and Tongan videography. Bio- and socio-documentary films made by American teenagers will be discussed; Anglo American examples such as snapshots/slides, family albums and home movies/videos will also be included in an effort to provide a comparative focus and global perspective.

0324-0524. The Genetic Basis of Human Variation (3 s.h.) S
Explores the hereditary variation in our species and its special relationship to disease incidences and susceptibilities. Emphasis on contrast between adaptations of traditional societies to infectious disease loads and contempory societies with degenerative disease loads, and the genetic susceptibilities concerned.

0326. Methods in Physical Anthropology (4 s.h.) N.B. S
Prerequisite: Anthropology 0125 or consent of the instructor. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students will have the opportunity to develop individual research projects in biological anthropology, utilizing materials in the department collections and from department expeditions. Students will be introduced to problems in research design, sampling theory, research paper writing, and commonly used statistical techniques in biological anthropology, and will apply them in their project analyses.

0330. Culture and Visual Communication Fieldwork (3 s.h.) S
This course serves as the required capstone course for students in the Visual Anthropology Track within the Anthropology Department. As a capstone, this course allows students to review, integrate, and operationalize what they have learned in previous coursework by undertaking a brief study in visual anthropology. Each student will be responsible for (1) formulating a study (as a proposal), (2) doing background library research, (3) undertaking a period of original fieldwork, (4) writing findings and results, and (5) making a brief presentation of results. Students will be responsible for a writing assignment at each stage of the process. Students may work individually or in pairs. Camera work is optional but encouraged.

0332. Anthropology and Photography (3 s.h.) F
Prerequisites: Anthro. 0060 or 0061 and Anthro. 0158 or permission of the instructor. A critical examination of an anthropological approach to photography. Special attention will be given to a socio-cultural history of photography in the U.S. Examples from documentary, fine art, and commercial photographic genres will be shown, discussed, and compared to ethnographic studies. Field methods, models of analysis, and ethical issues will also be included. Knowledge of camera technology and darkroom procedures are helpful but not required. Required readings, active class participation. No exams. Students keep a journal and write several short essays. (Sometimes this course is cross-listed with Art History or American Studies.)

0333. Anthropological Film
A review of major films styles useful for anthropological film and video in conjunction with an analysis of the role of film/video in anthropology. Topics will include relationships of anthropological and ethnographic films, the significance of historical and ideological contexts, values of research "footage" vs. "film," comparisons to indigenous video and feature films, and problems in the communication of anthropological theory and insight through film and video media. A broad range of ethnographic films will be screened to illustrate a progression of work and variety in relationships of theory, subject matter, cultural context, production techniques and style, and projected audiences.

0334. Anthropological Problems in Visual Production 3 s.h. S
The introduction of visual recording techniques to a sample of problems in the anthropology of visual communication. Discussions will include ways anthropologists construct problems, develop observational strategies, select appropriate image-making technology, work in field conditions, among others. Strategies of representation connected to the integration of cultural and filmic theories will be explored in conjunction with a wide range of filmic examples. Students will be introduced to the department's production facilities and do short exercises in image-making, viewing, and interpretation. A lab fee may be necessary depending on the extent of each semester's assignments.

0335. Advanced Problems in Production (3 s.h.) S
This course concentrates on the enhancement of production skills (possibly gained in Anthro 0334) and on the application of more complex technologies to making anthropologically significant texts. Significance will be given to why certain techniques vary and are more appropriate when films and other visual texts pursue different objectives. Readings and assignments will focus on text-making strategies by acknowledging underlying ideologies and conventions as related to relationships between alternative rationales, strategies, and choices. Students will undertake video assignments experimenting with different kinds of information and pictorial formats. Editing equipment will be used to illustrate assignments.

0335. Advanced Problems in Production (3 s.h.) S
This course concentrates on the enhancement of production skills (possibly gained in Anthro 0334) and on the application of more complex technologies to making anthropologically significant texts. Significance will be given to why certain techniques vary and are more appropriate when films and other visual texts pursue different objectives. Readings and assignments will focus on text-making strategies by acknowledging underlying ideologies and conventions as related to relationships between alternative rationales, strategies, and choices. Students will undertake video assignments experimenting with different kinds of information and pictorial formats. Editing equipment will be used to illustrate assignments.

0336. Anthropology in Feature Films (3 s.h.) F
Students will critically review a series of feature films that include topics, themes, and subject matter often treated within anthropology and related human sciences. It is clear that American feature films—usually thought of as “Hollywood films” —can be very influential in establishing or reinforcing social and cultural stereotypes of ‘states of knowledge' about peoples living in various parts of the world. Viewership of these materials, either as films shown in movie theaters or as their videotape counterparts seen on home television screens, certainly exceeds the size of audiences in introductory anthropology courses in the U.S. The potential for influence and false senses of familiarity is enormous.

0337. Pictorial Lives (3 s.h.) S
We will critically review the anthropological relevance of written forms such as biography and autobiography and subsequently compare these spoken/written models to modern pictorial traditions—still photography, film, and videotape. The course will integrate such topics as personal narrative, storytelling, family folklore, construction of personal knowledge, and creation of social and collective memories. We will address a series of questions: How do ordinary people use cameras to communicate information about themselves to themselves? Why are snapshots important to the study of human cultures? How do ordinary people construct versions of their lives, create evidence of human existence, as well as maintain identities and cultural presence in their family albums? How can we understand these pictorial forms as "stories" that are told across generations? How are human lives transformed to be preserved and remembered in snapshots, home movies and home videotapes? How do these picture collections contribute to our memories?

0355. Gender Theory (3 s.h.) S
This course explores anthropological literature on gender as a means of exposing hidden assumptions about power, language, and social action. Emphasis is on the development of theoretical critiques of various schools of thought, symbolic analysis of social practice, and the reconciliation of Marxist and cultural approaches to the analysis of gender.

0380. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (3 s.h.) F
An in-depth review of the synthetic theory of evolution and special topics in evolutionary theory. Emphasis will be placed on human evolution, human biocultural adaptation, and evolutionary biology.

0392-0393-0394. Independent Study (2-3-3 s.h.) FS
Prerequisite: Agreement by staff member to supervise student's work. Directed reading and research on a specific anthropological topic. Does not count toward major requirements in anthropology.

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For description of courses, consult the complete course listing for Art under Tyler School of Art.

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02611/Art History

Art History courses offered at Temple University are of two basic types: very broad-ranging introductory surveys of art, from prehistoric times to the present, and the more closely focused courses, treating limited segments of the vast historic panorama, such as Greek Art, Italian Renaissance Art, or Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Approximately 60 courses of the latter type are offered over the span of a four-year period. A further dimension of the curriculum is the junior year abroad program in Rome, Italy or Temple Japan. For description of courses, consult the complete course listing for Art History under Tyler School of Art.

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