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0001. Beginner's Hebrew I (4 s.h.) FS

Cultivation of the ability to read, write, and speak the language. Study of a basic vocabulary and fundamental rules of grammar. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0051.)

0002. Beginner's Hebrew II (4 s.h.) FS

Continuation of Beginner's Hebrew I with emphasis on conversation and composition. Reading of easy vocalized literature and reports. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0052.)

0003. Intermediate Hebrew I (4 s.h.) FS

Reading of moderately difficult Hebrew texts with discussion in Hebrew. Introduction to nonvocalized literature. Principles of vocalization and the irregular verb in all its conjugations. Laboratory work emphasizes the retelling of literature. (Cross-listed with Hebrew C061.)

0004. Intermediate Hebrew II (4 s.h.) FS

Continuation of Intermediate Hebrew I. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0062.)

UPPER LEVEL-INTRODUCTORY COURSES

0050. The Image of the Jew in the Motion Picture (3 s.h.) S

This course will explore through a series of films the various images of the Jew in the motion picture. In each class session the students will view and discuss an appropriate film based on the film itself and relevant readings. The films are divided into three main groupsÑdifferent views of the Jew from non-Jewish perspectives, different views of the Jew from Jewish perspectives, and different responses of Jews from Jewish perspectives to the perspectives of non-Jews. The third group of films is itself divided into three groups-the Jew as Zionist, the Jew as idealist, and the Jew as Holocaust victim. (Cross-listed with Religion 0075.)

0110. What is Judaism? (3 s.h.) S

This course introduces students to the beliefs, rituals, customs, and practices of the Jewish people in a historical context through an analysis of a variety of religious, cultural, and political texts and artifacts. (Cross-listed with Religion 0224.)

0111. The Origins of Judaism: Intro. to Judaism I (3 s.h.) 96-98

This course presents an introductory survey of Jewish life during the period in which the Hebrew Scriptures were composed. The relationship between God and human beings in covenant, the rule of divine commandments, the prophetic role, the understanding of chosenness, and the consequent ethical obligations are studied in the light of the growing and changing Jewish conceptions of this period.

0112. The Foundations of Judaism: Intro. to Judaism II (3 s.h.) S

This course presents an introductory survey of Jewish life during the period in which the central texts of rabbinic Judaism were composed-Mishnah, the talmuds, midrash, and classical rabbinic commentaries on the Bible. The nature of God, creation, divine providence, prayer, life after death, Israel as the chosen people, messianism, and Jewish ethics are studied in the light of the growing and changing Jewish conceptions of this period. (Cross-listed with Religion 0221.)

0121. Survey of Jewish History: Intro. to Jewish History I (3 s.h.) 96-98

An introduction to the major developments in Jewish history from the destruction of the Second Jewish Commonwealth to the creation of the State of Israel. Topics include the medieval Jewish experience under both Christian and Islamic rule, the growth of eastern European Jewry, the impact of emancipation, the rise of Zionism, modern anti-Semitism and the Holocaust, and the development of American Jewry. (Cross-listed with History 0155.)

0122. Modern Jewish History: Intro. to Jewish History II (3 s.h.) S

An introduction with emphasis on the modern period. The medieval Jewish experience, process of emancipation, development of modern anti-Semitism, and growth of Zionism. Also eastern European Jewry, the Holocaust, the State of Israel, and the American Jewish community. (Cross-listed with History 0156.)

UPPER LEVEL-ADVANCED COURSES

0101. Biblical Hebrew I (4 s.h.) S

This course provides an opportunity to learn the fundamentals of the Hebrew language, the grammar, a working vocabulary to gain knowledge of selections from the Pentateuch, Psalms and Prophets, and discipline in the use of Lexica commentaries. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0071.)

0102. Biblical Hebrew II (4 s.h.) 96-98

Selections from the Pentateuch will be read and interpreted by traditional interpreters as well as modern commentators. Methodology of reading the Hebrew Scriptures will be taught, and the historical background will be explored. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0073.)

0201. Hebrew Literature I (2 s.h.) 96-98

Selected readings from representative Hebrew sources showing the development, growth, and usage of the modern Hebrew language. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0310.)

0202. Hebrew Literature II (3 s.h.) 96-98

Selections of unvocalized, unedited texts. A dual approach emphasizing literary and linguistic qualities of the text. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0121.)

0211. The Philosophies of Judaism: Jewish Philos. I (3 s.h.) 96-98

(Cross-listed with Religion 0225.)

0212. Modern Trends in Judaism: Jewish Philos. II (3 s.h.) F

The development of modern Jewish thought from the late 15th century to present. Includes Jewish philosophers such as Spinoza, Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Mordecai Kaplan, and topics such as the nature of God, the relation of Jewish law and ethics, the relationship of Judaism to other religions, Zionism, and Holocaust theology. (Cross-listed with Religion 0223.)

W221. Introduction to the Bible (3 s.h.) FS

Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. What is the Bible? Where did it come from? How can there be so many different interpretations of the Bible? An examination of the historical and religious background of the Hebrew Scriptures and the various kinds of literature in the Bible. (Cross-listed with Religion W240.)

0222. Historical Roots of the Bible

(Cross-listed with History 0383.)

0223. The Jewish Experience in America (3 s.h.) S

The evolution of the Jewish community in the United States from its colonial beginnings to the present day. Special attention will be given to the Philadelphia Jewish experience. The classes will be organized along topic lines including differing waves of immigration (including "fourth wave" Soviet Jews), the development of the major religious movements within Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform), the political culture of the Jewish community, impact socially and culturally of Jews on American life, anti-Semitism in this country, the Jewish and American response to Zionism, and Israel and Black-Jewish relations. The course concludes with an examination of current trends. (Cross-listed with History 0229.)

0231. Literature and Art of the Holocaust (3 s.h.) F

One of the main assumptions of the course is that the Holocaust, which was considered to be a Jewish catastrophe, is humanity's catastrophe and affirmation of the bankruptcy and failing of western civilization. The literature of the Holocaust transmits the horrors and terrors in concentration camps, on the trains and in the snowy fields. The course will be offered in English. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0279.)

0232. Israel Today (3 s.h.) 96-98

Law, geography, education, religion, politics, eastern and western communities, and culture examined by experts in three fields. This course will be offered in English. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0236.)

0233. Jewish Humor Past and Present (3 s.h.) FS

The development of Jewish humor from the medieval ages through the Enlightenment through modern Israel. Focuses on the different literary forms of wit and humor. Representative works and authors are Ibn Zabara, Book of Delight; Perl, The Discovery of Secrets; and a Sholom Aleichem selection. Concludes with selections from Kishon, Ben-Amotz (Israel), Woody Allen, Sam Levenson, and Nadir (U.S.). This course will be offered in English. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0248.)

0301. Advanced Readings in the Hebrew Scriptures (3 s.h.) 96-98

Narrative and poetic portions of the literature of the Hebrew Scriptures in the original Hebrew. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0122.)

0302. Advanced Readings in Rabbinic Texts (3 s.h.) F

The course will cover a selection of 3,000 years of Hebrew legend and folktales. Two sources will be used. The first is stories that are included in the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, and selections of stories. The second source is a collection of oral stories published by the Israel Institute for Folklore. Themes and literary devices will be analyzed, and the use of allegory, fable, and symbol will be explored. References will be made to the social and religious functions of legend. This course will be offered in English. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0242.)

0303. Advanced Readings in Modern Hebrew Literature (3 s.h.)

(Cross-listed with Hebrew 0233.)

0304. Advanced Readings in Israeli Literature (3 s.h.) 96-98

Israel's society and individuals are shaped by the four major wars since 1947 and small guerilla wars that never cease. The tension between being in a constant war, and the deep yearning for peace creates interesting and problematic literature, portraying the heroes of war and the anti-heroes who object to any war. The literature moves from despair to hope and explores the justifications of Israel's being. Special attention will be paid to recurring metaphors and symbols, and the creation of new styles and language to express this struggle. Selections will include works by: Y. Amichai, A. Oz, A.B. Yehoshua, D. Rabikowitz, and D. Pagis. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0244.)

0305. Religion, Politics, and Genocide: Holocaust, Resistance, and Response (3 s.h.) F

Using a variety of different kinds of materials, artistic, literary, political, and historical, this course will examine how various individuals and communities were able to 'resist' and to 'respond' to events that occurred between the years of 1933 and 1945 in Europe, "the Holocaust." It will also attempt to problematize this historical legacy. By raising questions about the role of memory, testimony, and narrative, students will be asked to respond. They will be expected to position themselves in relation to these materials. (Cross-listed with Religion 0306.)

0311. The Wisdom Literature of the Bible: Hebrew Scriptures I (3 s.h.) 96-98

A study in the original Hebrew of selected portions of the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Job with standard commentaries.

0312. Love Themes in Hebrew Literature: Hebrew Scriptures II (3 s.h.) 96-98

The development of the different love themes from the Song of Songs, through the golden age of Spain, Hebrew poetry in Italy, the Enlightenment, revival period, and Israeli literature. Among the themes will be great expectations, happiness and unity, and the happy hell of withered love. Changes in style, form, and content will be emphasized and recurring symbols will be discussed. A special place in the course will be devoted to love poetry written by women. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0354.)

0321. Development of the Modern Short Story: Jewish Lit. I (3 s.h.) 96-98

A systematic analysis of the elements of the short story and its development from the organized "traditional" short story to the disorganized "modern" short story. Among selections, stories by Y. Steinberg, Brenner, Bialik, and D. Frishman. (Cross-listed with Hebrew 0368.)

0322. Humor and Satire in Modern Hebrew Lit: Jewish Lit II (3 s.h.) 96-98

Humor and satire (1800-1960) explored through short stories of Y. Erter, Y. Perl, Ahalom Aleichem, and A. Meged.

0331. Israel and the Arabs (3 s.h.) F

Development of Israel and its relationship with its Arab neighbors. Includes a discussion of the evolution of Zionism, the growth of Arab nationalism, the creation of the Jewish State, the plight of the Palestinian refugees, and an evaluation of peace prospects in the Middle East. (Cross-listed with History 0314.)

0332. Jewish Women in Historical Perspective (3 s.h.) 96-98

This course will trace the history of Jewish women from Biblical times to the present, with an emphasis on the modern period. We shall explore the status and role of women within Jewish society in the ancient world and under medieval Christianity and Islam, and then compare the impact of modernity on Jewish women in Europe, America, and the Middle East. We shall discuss the effects of migration, higher education, socialism, the Holocaust, and feminism on Jewish women's lives. (Cross-listed with History 0158 and Women's Studies 0115.)

0333. Women in Judaism (3 s.h.)

(Cross-listed with Women's Studies 0202.)

0342, Independent Study in Jewish Studies (3 s.h.) 96-98

Intensive study under individual guidance in a specific area suggested by the student and approved by the faculty advisor from the Jewish Studies faculty.

Return to the list of courses.

PREPARATORY LEVEL

0015. Prealgebra (3 s.h.) FS

Topics include operations with rational numbers and decimals, area, problem solving, equations of lines, and graphing linear functions. (Math 0015 is a pass-fail course. It does not count towards the number of credits required for graduation.)

0045. Elementary Algebra (3 s.h.) FS

Prerequisite: Math placement or Math 0015. Topics include algebraic operations, linear and quadratic equations, polynomials, exponentials, systems of linear equations, problem solving, graphing lines and parabolas; introduction to functions.

LOWER LEVEL

C055. College Mathematics (3 s.h.) (QA) FS

Mathematical concepts and applications for the nonspecialist. Selected topics from areas such as Linear Programming, Management Science, Counting Techniques, Probability, and Statistics.

C065. Elements of Mathematical Thought (3 s.h.) (QB) FS

Prerequisite: Math C055. Contemporary mathematical applications for the nonspecialist. Deals with the general areas of social choice, size, and shape. Specific topics include voting systems, fair division and apportionment, game theory, growth and form, size of populations, measurement, and geometric patterns.

C066. Intuitive Calculus (3 s.h.) (QB/D4) FS

Prerequisite: Math C055. This course presents a one-semester overview of the basic topics in calculus, demonstrating their applications in a wide variety of fields. A review of elementary skills will be given during the first week of the semester.

C067. Elements of Statistics (3 s.h.) (QB/D4) FS

Prerequisite: Math C055. This course provides a firm foundation for the study of statistics in other fields. Although no one field is emphasized to the exclusion others, applications are drawn from psychology, political science, exercise science, and other areas.

0073. College Algebra (3 s.h.) (QA) FS

(Math 0073 and 0074 replace Math 0004.) Prerequisite: Math placement or a grade C or better in Math 0045. A preparatory course for Math C075 (but not C085). The content of Math 0073 is similar to that of Math 0074, but without trigonometry, and includes a review of basic algebra followed by a treatment of polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions.

0074. Precalculus (4 s.h.) (QA) FS

(Math 0073 and 0074 replace Math 0004.) Prerequisite: Math placement or a grade C or better in Math 0045. A preparatory course for Math C085 (but can also be taken for Math C075). Includes a review of basic algebra followed by a treatment of algebraic, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions.

C075. Calculus with Applications I* (4 s.h.) (QB/D4) FS

*For students taking Mathematics C055 prior to C075; C075 is considered D4.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0073 or 0074 with grade C or better or two years of high school algebra and one year of trigonometry. Math C075 is an intuitive treatment of calculus with emphasis on applications rather than theory. Topics include algebraic, exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions, differentiation and its applications, techniques of differentiation, and an introduction to the definite integral. Students who need three semesters of calculus should take Math 0085 rather than Math 0075.

0076. Calculus with Applications II (4 s.h.) (D4) FS

Prerequisite: Mathematics C075 or C085 with a grade C or better, or equivalent. Mathematics 0076 is an intuitive treatment of calculus with an emphasis on applications rather than theory. Topics include applications of the exponential and logarithmic functions, techniques of integration, functions of several variables, differential equations, probability distributions. Taylor polynomials, and infinite series. Students who need three semesters of calculus should take Math 0086 rather than Math 0076.

0085. Calculus (4 s.h.) (QB/D4) FS

*For students taking Mathematics C055 prior to C085; C085 is considered D4.

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0074 with a grade of C or better, or high school algebra (2 years) and trigonometry (1 year). An introduction to analytic geometry; functions; limits and continuity; differentiation of algebraic and trigonometric functions; curve sketching, applications; antiderivatives; the definite integral and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

0086. Calculus II (4 s.h.) (D4) FS

Prerequisite: Mathematics C085 with a grade of C or better. Applications of the definite integral, transcendental functions, properties and applications, techniques of integration, improper integrals, polar coordinates, convergence of sequences and series.

H090. Honors-College Math (3 s.h.) (QA) FS

Honors section of Mathematics C055.

H091. Honors-Elements of Mathematical Thought (QB) (3 s.h.)

Honors section of Mathematics C065.

H095-H096. Honors Calculus IÐII (4 s.h. each) (QB/D4) FS

Honors section of Mathematics C085-C086.

UPPER LEVEL

W115. Mathematical Recreations (3 s.h.) (D4) F

A survey of various mathematical recreations, puzzles, and games. Emphasis on developing problem-solving techniques many of which are applicable in other fields.

0117. Elementary Calculus with Applications III (4 s.h.) (D4) F96

Prerequisite: Mathematics C076 or C086 or equivalent. Mathematics 0117 is an intuitive treatment of calculus with an emphasis on applications rather then theory. Topics include vectors in three-dimensional space, vector-valued functions, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, and an introduction to vector analysis. This course will be discontinued after fall 1996. Students who need three semesters of calculus should take Math C085, 0086, and 0127.

0127. Calculus III. (4 s.h.) (D4) FS

Prerequisite: Mathematics C086. Power series, vectors in two or three dimensions, lines and planes in space, parametric equations, vector functions and their derivatives. Functions of several variables, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, line integrals and Green's Theorem, infinite series and Taylor's Theorem, indeterminate forms, introduction to complex numbers and functions.

W141. Basic Mathematical Concepts (3 s.h.) FS

Mathematics 0127 may be taken concurrently. Sets, relations, functions, logic, ordered fields, induction, cardinality. Only one of the following courses may be credited toward the B.A. degree: Mathematics W141; CIS 0066.

0147. Linear Algebra (3-4 s.h.) FS

Prerequisite: One year of calculus or permission of instructor. Vectors and vector spaces, matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations, linear transformations, inner products, and eigen values. In sections with 4 credits there is a required lab, where a computing lab is used to demonstrate topics and provide hands-on experience with the ideas encountered. Activities designed to promote understanding are the primary focus. Sections without the lab must be taken for 3 credits.

0195. Honors in Mathematical Recreations (3 s.h.) (D4) F

Honors section of Mathematics W115.

0203. Theory of Numbers (3 s.h.) F

Prerequisite: One year of calculus or permission of instructor. Divisibility properties of integers, prime factorization, distribution of primes, linear and quadratic congruences, primitive roots, quadratic residues, quadratic reciprocity, simple Diophantine equations.

W205. Modern Algebra (3 s.h.) S

Prerequisite: Mathematics W141 and 0147 or permission of instructor. Introduction to the theory of groups, rings, and fields. (Capstone W course)

0227. Mathematical Computer Programming I (3 s.h.) F

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0117 or 0127, Mathematics 0147, and CIS C059 or the equivalent. Mathematical techniques and algorithms which lend themselves to computer implementation and which form a basic repertoire for the mathematician, scientist, or engineer. Extensive computer utilization.

0230. Probability for Applied Sciences (3 s.h.) S

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0117 or 0127 or permission of instructor. The axiomatic definition of probability and its properties, combinatorial analysis, random variables, general properties of continuous random variables, normal and exponential distributions, expected values, Markov chains, Law of Large Numbers, Chebyshev's inequality, and stochastic processes. The emphasis is on the use of probability in solving problems rather than detailed development of the theory.

0233. Introduction to Probability Theory (3 s.h.) FS

Prerequisite: Math 0127 or its equivalent. Counting techniques, axiomatic definition of probability, conditional probability, independence of events, Bayes Theorem, random variables, discrete and continuous probability distributions, expected values, moments and moment generating functions, joint probability distributions, functions of random variables, covariance and correlation.

0234. Introduction to Mathematical Statistics (3 s.h.) S

Prerequisite: Math 0233 or equivalent. Random sampling, sampling distributions, t, chi-squared and F distributions, unbiasedness, minimum variance unbiased estimators, confidence intervals, tests of hypothesis, Neyman-Pearson Lemma, uniformly most powerful tests.

0247. Advanced Calculus I (3 s.h.) F

Prerequisites: Math 0127, Math W141, and 0147. The study of the topology of n-dimensional space; functions, sequences, continuity and uniform continuity on n-dimensional space; differentiation of functions of one and several variables, Taylor's theorem and extremal problems; integration of functions of one and several variables.

0248. Advanced Calculus II (3 s.h.) S

Prerequisite: Math 0247. Uniform convergence, differentiation of transformations, inverse of transformations, functional dependence, transformations of multiple integrals, integrals over curves and surfaces, theorems of Green, Gauss and Stokes, the divergence theorem, extremal problems with constraints.

0251. Differential Equations I (3-4 s.h.) FS

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0127 or the equivalent. In sections with 4 credits, there is a required computer laboratory, which is used to demonstrate numerical procedures for solving differential equations, to study graphs of families of solutions of differential equations and phase place analysis. The laboratory also introduces the solution of differential equations by automatic manipulation. Sections without the laboratory must be taken for 3 credits.

0252. Differential Equations II (3 s.h.) S97 and alternate S

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0251. Orthogonal polynomials including Legendre and Tchebycheff polynomials, Fourier series, partial differential equations, boundary value problems, the phase plane, stability, Liapunov's method, eigenvalue problems, and introduction to functions of a complex variable.

0253. Numerical Analysis I (3-4 s.h.) FS

Prerequisites: Three terms of calculus, linear algebra, and basic knowledge of a high level programming language like FORTRAN, BASIC, or PASCAL. Computer arithmetic, pitfalls of computation, iterative methods for the solution of a single nonlinear equation, interpolation, least squares, numerical differentiation, numerical integration, and solutions of linear systems by direct and iterative methods. In sections with 4 credits there is a required lab, where a computing lab is used to demonstrate topics and provide hands-on experience with the ideas encountered. Activities designed to promote understanding are the primary focus. Sections without the laboratory must be taken for 3 credits.

0254. Numerical Analysis II (3 s.h.) S97 and alternate S

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0253. Solution of systems of nonlinear equations, solution of initial value problems, matrix norms and the analysis of iterative solutions, numerical solution of boundary value problems and partial differential equations, and introduction to the finite element method.

0271. Modern Geometry I (3 s.h.) F

Prerequisite: Mathematics 0147. A study of the properties of projective, affine, Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces and their transformation groups.

0295-0296. Independent Study (2 s.h. each) FS

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0127, 0147, and 0247. Open to juniors and seniors who desire two credits of independent study. Primarily for members of the problem solving group who desire to receive credit for their work.

0297-0298. Junior Individual Study (3 s.h. each) FS

Either semester may be taken. Prerequisite: Approval of the department adviser and the instructor. Intensive study in a specific area.

0329. Simulations and Monte Carlo Techniques (3 s.h.) S97 and alternate S

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0227 or the equivalent, and Mathematics 0233 or permission of the instructor. Generation and testing of random numbers, random selection techniques, construction of models, design and evaluation of simulation experiments, simulation languages and applications.

0347. Introduction to Functions of a Complex Variable (3 s.h.) F

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0247 and 0248 or permission of instructor. Complex numbers, analytic functions. Cauchy's theorem, residues, power series, Laurent series, conformal mapping.

0350. Applied Mathematics (3 s.h.) F96 and alternate F

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0147, 0233, and 0251 or permission of instructor. The construction and study of mathematical models for physical, economic, and social processes.

0351. Partial Differential Equations (3 s.h.) S96 and alternate S

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0247 and 0251. The solution and properties of first and second order equations; heat and wave equation. Elliptic boundary value problems and Green's functions. Hyperbolic problems and the theory of characteristics. Finite difference methods. The equations of mathematical physics.

0355. Operations Research (3 s.h.) S

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0147 and 0233. The theory and applications of various topics, including linear and dynamic programming; game theory; transportation, assignment, and network problems; inventory problems; scheduling and queueing problems.

0363. Senior Problem Solving (3 s.h.) S

Prerequisites: Mathematics W141, 0147, and 0247 or permission of instructor. (It is strongly recommended that students take Mathematics W205 and 0251 before taking this course.) Miscellaneous problems in mathematics and its applications. Possible sources include challenging problems from previous math courses, Math Monthly problems, Putnam exams, and computer applications. Problems will be solved both individually and in groups.

0365. Topology I (3 s.h.) S96 and alternate S

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0247 and 0248. Topological and metric spaces, continuity, compactness, connectedness, convergence. Introduction to algebraic and combinatorial topology, classification of compact surfaces, fundamental groups.

0382. Combiniatorics (3 s.h.) F97 and alternate F

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0127 and 0147. Basic theorems and applications of combinatorial analysis, including generating functions, difference equations, Polya's theory of counting, graph theory, matching, and block diagrams.

0395. Independent Study (2 s.h.) FS

Prerequisites: Mathematics 0127, 0147, and 0247. Open to juniors and seniors who desire two credits of independent study. Primarily for members of the problem solving group who desire to receive credit for their work.

0397-0398. Senior Individual Study (3 s.h.) FS

Prerequisite: Approval of the departmental adviser and instructor. Open to seniors only.

Return to the list of courses.

- This web version written by Mary England 7/96

Comments and questions concerning this web version of the bulletin or requests for adding **reference marks** for linking to **subsections of a page** may be sent to
Mary England.