More detailed descriptions of all undergraduate courses in history at Temple are available on the department website at www.temple.edu/histdept/und_course.html.

Lower Division Courses

C060. Third World History (3 s.h.) SS. Core: IS.

Third World History offers a form of global history since 1500 that focuses upon the Third World, approximately three-quarters of the world's population whose experience has been powerfully shaped by colonialism and imperialism as well as by resistance to these forces. The historical issues raised in the course constitute some of the most fundamental elements shaping the present-day world as well as the immediate future. Particular attention is given to the twentieth century. Assignments in the course are concerned with both historical issues and with the development of student analytical and writing skills.

Note: This course fulfills the Core non-Western International Studies requirement.

C061. World History-Ancient (3 s.h.) Core: IS.

This course deals with the emergence and diffusion of civilizations and their interactions with each other as well as with the environment from the beginning of time until c. 1500 C.E. Equal weight is given to the civilizations of Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas.

C062. World History-Modern (3 s.h.) Core: IS.

Over the last 500 years, the world has become an intensely interwoven and interdependent place. While the world has been made considerably more unequal and conflictive, it has also become potentially more subject to being influenced by the mass actions of ordinary people. We will examine the global forces that have made this happen, looking at some "facts" but mostly paying attention to relationships among areas of the world, among types of historical factors, among varieties of people, and among periods of time. Four focal points will guide the course across the semester: 1) the material basis of life; 2) the organization and maintenance of human communities; 3) the impact of science and technology; and 4) the operations of the international relations system.

Note: The course fulfills the non-Western International Studies requirement of the Temple University core curriculum.

C063/H091. War and Society (3 s.h.) Core: IS.

This course is a thematic introduction to the history of warfare and its impact on society. We will examine such topics as the definition of warfare and its role in early human civilizations, changes in the nature of warfare over the past two millennia, the interplay between technology, warfare, and social change, and the future of warfare as a tool in politics. Students will not only read some of the classic secondary literature on these subjects, but will also be asked to engage key primary sources as well, in order better to understand some of the problems (and the rewards) involved in studying the past. The course is organized around six "units" of varying length dealing with prehistoric warfare: ancient Greece, the Middle Ages, the invention of Gunpowder, Total War, and World War Two.

C065/H095. Gender and History (3 s.h.) SS. Core: IS.

This course will introduce you to the history of feminine and masculine roles from a comparative international perspective. It will cover basic facts, concepts, and themes relating to six topics: The state, the sacred, work, the family, the body, and modern social movements (feminism, women's suffrage, pacifism, and socialism), using as case studies Ancient Greece, Medieval Europe, West Africa, Modern Europe, and the United States.

C066. Modern Europe (3 s.h.) SS. Core: IS.

This core course focuses on major developments in Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Those were momentous times during which the modern state system was created, economies industrialized, societies urbanized, too many and too disastrous wars were fought, and governments expanded and evolved, often through revolutionary experiences. And of course there were immense advances in science and technology, which quite literally changed the whole world causing a mental transformation of incredible dimension, affecting all aspects of life, thinking and culture.

C067/H097. U.S. History to 1877 (3 s.h.) SS. Core: AC.

As it examines the revolutionary and early national periods (1776-1830's), this course will help you understand the origins of republicanism, democracy, the presidency, and American political culture in general. Such concepts as republicanism, democracy, and liberty are often assumed to have universally accepted definitions, but it is essential to understand the conditions of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries that gave these concepts a specifically American caste and molded the unique pattern of American political development. Analysis of the institution of slavery and its role in the coming of the Civil War will lead to a clearer understanding of the history of American Blacks during this period and of the historical development of race relations in this country. In addition, the course will also pay considerable attention to American society as a whole throughout the period, examining such phenomena as urbanization and assessing how wealth and power were distributed at various points in American development. In this connection the status and activities of women will receive detailed analysis to draw some conclusions about the historical role of American women.

C068/H098. U.S. History since 1877 (3 s.h.) SS. Core: AC.

This is a general survey course of the main currents in American history since 1877. The past 123 years have witnessed major transformations in the makeup of American society and culture. Thus, the history of this era is a story of capital development and economic crises, labor unrest, social class formation, urbanization, militarization, regional diversification, and cultural innovations. During this century the political and economic status of women and minorities changed significantly. This course will focus on many of the traditional themes usually covered in a general survey. But, it will also concentrate on the individual and collective struggles of ethnic groups, African-Americans, and women to make America live up to the promises of peace, justice, dignity, and freedom for all.

Upper Division Courses

0100. Introduction to History (3 s.h.)

This course presents offers students from all fields of study a broad view of the issues and methods that comprise historical study at the start of the 21st century. As an intermediate level course, this class will develop analytical skills in the identification and comprehension of historical arguments and sharpen writing and research skills. The course instructor will guide students in the use of traditional primary sources as well as electronic databases and the world wide web. Guest professors will acquaint students with the diverse fields and concerns of history.

0102. Peace, Conflict, and Social Change (3 s.h.)

This course addresses the question of conflict/violence from domestic, local, national, and international perspectives using particular case studies. Introductory material includes a general discussion showing case studies of violence and conflict resolution at these various levels. The course also incorporates some discussion of human rights plus theoretical and pragmatic alternatives to violence. It also considers a number of key themes: the family, racial conflict, economic and political violence. In the final weeks of the semester, students are encouraged to consider options for the peaceful resolution of case studies discussed during the semester.

0103/H193. World Economy Since 1945 (3 s.h.)

At the turn of the millennium, economic globalization is profoundly transforming many long-standing patterns of human existence. Public discussion about globalization, nevertheless, remains often shallow and misleading. This course aims to offer a deeper perspective on the present by examining the experience of the world economy over the formative period since World War II. It concentrates on two basic questions: 1) How did the domestic and global foundations of the current world economy come into being over the last half century? and 2) What are the implications of this historical process for our immediate and future lives? As an intermediate level course, the World Economy Since 1945 assumes no prior student backgrounds in either history or economics--only a lively interest in learning about broad historical trends and in developing intellectual skills. In addition to discussion, lecture, and common readings, methods of instruction in the course include use of a computer-assisted classroom to provide image and text projections, video clips, and internet linkages.

0104. Nationalism and Revolution (3 s.h.)

Beginning with the establishment of civil and political rights during the French Revolution, the course will address the relationship of the individual to the nation-state in Western Europe from the French Revolution to World War I. The course will include problematical issues that emerged during this period such as: the Napoleonic wars and the emergence of the modern nation-state; the development of the industrial revolution and its socio-economic impact on members of the working and middle classes; the consolidation of the nation-state and its impact on personal and political freedom. But in addition to considering the expansion of liberal political developments in the West, the course will consider the effects of imperialism on Asian and African countries during the final decades of the century. The final unit will consider how nationalism and imperialism contributed to the outbreak of the First World War and to the breakdown of old political states and traditional values in the Western societies.

0105. Love, Marriage, and Family (3 s.h.)

It is easy to assume that love, marriage, and family go together; but this has not always been the case. These concepts have a history. This course is a comparative examination of love, marriage, and family and the related themes of gender and sexuality in different historical periods and geographical areas. It includes ancient, medieval, and modern texts and materials and covers both western (European and American) and non-western (Asia, Africa, and perhaps Middle Eastern and Latin American) case studies. Each instructor may place a different emphasis among those topics and regions.

0106. World War I (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0151.)

In 1914 the major powers of Europe went to war and things were never the same again. The war was expected to be a short one but it lasted more than four years, killing millions, destroying economies, overthrowing empires, and setting the stage for a second war that was, if possible, even more terrible than the first. The course will analyze what led to this war, how it was fought and experienced, its mental and material impact, its end and its legacies.

0107. World War II (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0152.)

This course is a global survey of the Second World War, from its origins in the 1930s to its horrifying conclusion in 1945. "World War Two" is an intermediate course which will address broad historical themes and interpretations and will require students to read a number of important secondary works in the field. However, as a survey, it will also serve as an excellent introduction to the subject for students with an interest, but little prior knowledge of the Second World War.

R109. Imperialism, Race, and Empire (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

This course introduces key themes and issues central to an understanding of race in modern history. Examining the intersection of race and imperialism-empire over the last two centuries, it places special importance on: how ideas about race were profoundly affected by the colonial encounter; how rationalizations for imperialism have often depended on race; and the resistance of subordinated people to racialist discourses and forms of rule.

0110. African Diaspora (3 s.h.)

This course deals with the history of the African Diaspora in the Americas for the last five hundred years. How this African presence impacted upon the social, economic, cultural, religious, and demographic set-up of the Americas will be addressed. Themes like pan-African nationalism and racial discourse will also be discussed.

0111. Asian Diaspora (3 s.h.)

Spurred by pressures of colonialism, economic change, nationalism, political repression and war as well as individual needs and adventurism, Asians have migrated from their homelands to new regions of the world - within Asia as well as in Africa, Caribbean, and Latin America, North America, and Europe. In considering the diaspora, familiar terms such as Asian, American, Community, and Nation are called into question by the multiplicity of experiences and identities of those who have ventured out from Eastern regions of the globe. This course examines the social experiences and cultural productions of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos who have journeyed to far flung lands and the terms that can employed to analyze their experiences and culture.

0112. Jewish Diaspora (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0155.)

Jewish history from the destruction of the Second Jewish Commonwealth to the creation of the State of Israel. Focus on minority status, migration, persecution, economic adaptation, gender roles in different environments, acculturation and identity. Will include the medieval Jewish experience under both Christian and Islamic rule; the development of Jewish communities in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and the United States; the changing role of Jewish women; the rise of Zionism; and the Holocaust.

0113. Third World Issues through Film (3 s.h.)

Films bring alive the texture of society and the context of ideas, events, lives, and conflicts in a way that standard textbooks and readings cannot. This survey course introduces repeating, powerful, and important themes in modem history through the study of issues raised in Asian, African, and Latin American cinema. Unit I presents issues of Colonialism, Nationalism, and Independence Movements. Unit II, Post-Colonial Themes, includes nation building, neocolonialism, and responses to neocolonialism as well as issues of cultural reconstruction, political leadership, class, gender, race, and ethnicity in post-independence eras. Written texts complement the films; class discussion and assignments focus on analysis of the characters, events, institutions, and ideas represented in the films and readings.

0115. Introduction to East Asia: China (3 s.h.)

Overview from ancient times to the present. Designed to provide students with a basic understanding of major themes and broad processes of social change in Chinese history. Emphasizes those aspects of continuity and change that are particularly relevant to contemporary China. Topics include: state formation; the development of characteristic institutions, thought, and cultural practices; long term trends in social dynamics and the economy; imperialism and semi colonialism; revolutionary transformation in the early 20th century; the Maoist road to socialism after 1949; and the post-socialist trajectory of the past two decades and its critique. Course materials include films, primary documents, and literature.

0116. Introduction to East Asia: Japan (3 s.h.)

This introductory course surveys Japan's evolution from an isolated island kingdom in ancient times to a world power in the twentieth century with a focus on on continuity and change in religion, government, and family life. Topics include birth of the early state, myths, and civilization; aristocratic high culture; rise of the warrior class; the modern transformation into urban, industrial nation-state; and World War II. The course emphasizes continuity and change through the interpretation of primary documents in translation.

0117. Introduction to Southeast Asia: Insular (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0130.)

This course covers the histories of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore from the sixteenth century until modern times. It will introduce students to the island worlds of Southeast Asia, its peoples, their histories, societies, and economies. To familiarize students with non-Western worlds, lectures will be illustrated with videotapes, slides, and transparencies. Excerpts of articles and indigenous documents will also be used for discussion. Course work will include readings, discussions, examinations, and book reviews.

0118. Introduction to Southeast Asia: Mainland (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0129.)

This course covers the histories of Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, from the sixteenth century until modern times. It is a course designed to introduce students to the analysis of such forces as religion, statecraft, ideology, and trade, and the manner in which they have shaped the mainland countries of Southeast Asia. Mainland Southeast Asia's role in world politics and economy will also be analyzed. Reference will be made to contemporary events taking place in the region, and students will be encouraged to follow these developments through the media and integrate their knowledge in class discussions.

0119. Introduction to African History (3 s.h.) SS.

This course is an introduction to the study of African history. History is the record of human activities transmitted to posterity either in written or oral form. Africa has the longest record of human habitation, making African history the oldest in the family of human history. Given the immense complexity and richness of African history, we could only scan through the major themes of African history by studying the intertwining of African culture with African history proper. There are six books assigned for this course. They cover interdisciplinary issues pertaining to cultural studies, anthropological explorations, gender relations, and historical studies proper.

R120. Latino Caribbean World (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

(Formerly: History 0346.)

This course offers an interpretation of the long-term historical evolution of the Caribbean region and of Caribbean peoples within the United States. While its primary emphasis is given to the experience of Cubans and Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, Haitians, and people from the English-speaking Caribbean also receive attention. Race constitutes a central thread of the course in the context of colonialism and slavery in the Caribbean, migratory patterns to and from the United States, and matters of cultural identity and labor-force participation at dawn of the 21st century. As an intermediate-level history course, the Latino Caribbean World places an emphasis on careful analysis of readings and upon the writing of historical essays. It treats its material in a broad, comparative manner aimed at linking the course to other fields of knowledge.

0121. Latin America to 1930 (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0340.)

This course provides an overview of Latin American history to l930. Topics for the pre-l930 period of Latin American history include: 1) the discovery and conquest of native. American societies by Europeans; 2) the transfer and construction of European, i. e., Spanish and Portuguese institutions, culture and languages to Latin America; 3) the creation of new societies comprised of Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans; 4) efforts of Latin American peoples to create republican institutions and independent economies since winning independence in the nineteenth century. For generations, these topics have been largely researched and discussed by historians with a Eurocentric point of view. However, other viewpoints are now being asserted that stress the actions of Latin American peoples in crucial moments in their own history. The discovery and conquest of Latin America, the creation of a Latin American culture, and the struggle to establish the republican form of government and independent national economies are the main topics of the course. Attention is given to different interpretations.

0122. Latin American Social Struggles (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0118.)

Latin Americans have participated dramatically in twentieth century processes of change and historical acceleration. They have created dynamic economies and polities. They have also differed and quarreled over such questions as who shall control power, and how it shall be exercised, and over approaches to economic growth and social development. Latin Americans have often vehemently disagreed over economic and political relations with the great powers such as the United States, and Great Britain, with Germany during the period l933-l945, and with the Soviet Union until its collapse in l989. The politics of these issues was played out against a background of continual social struggle and sometimes of murderous civil war and severe repression. At the same time, popular movements that strove to overcome social injustice and discrimination based on class, race, and ethnicity steadily grew in importance. In recent decades, Latin America has reached a position of world leadership, or world prominence in the development of grassroots movements and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), in the emancipation of women, in certain areas of intellectual work (the production of theology and human rights ideology), and in literature, art, and music. Contemporary Latin America concentrates on the changes in Latin America since l930, and covers the history of roughly the last three generations of Latin Americans.

0123. Modern Islamic History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0313.)

This course compares Modern Islamic history, viewed as a political economy, with Modern Islamic history viewed through modernization theory. We also consider issues relating to gender in Modern Islam, and consider notions of reformation of modern society.

0140. Pre-Modern Europe (3 s.h.)

The evolution of Europe from Roman times until 1750. The different cultures that went to make up Europe-Roman, Christian, "Barbarian", Muslim; formation of proto-states; technological and economic change; contact with non-Europeans; social and cultural movements over the medieval and early modern periods. Europe before the modern era was not a static, fossilized culture but rather a dynamic one marked by important discontinuities as well as continuities.

0141. Irish History (3 s.h.)

Irish and Irish American culture, society, religion, and problems associated with minority status and oppression. Special questions relating to the changing structure of family ties and women and related issues; Irish American consciousness as exemplified by support over the recent troubles in Northern Ireland. The recent and dramatic improvements in the standard of living in the Republic and the growing disparity amongst the urban Irish will serve to complete this study.

0144. History of England (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0109.)

How the kingdom of England was created and how its government evolved from a feudal monarchy to a constitutional democracy that has been a model for other countries, especially the United States. How England became the first industrial nation and how its society and culture responded to this change.

0145. Rome and Italy: Renaissance to the Present (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0188.)

A broad survey of Italian history from medieval to modern times. Although the unified Italian state is a modern creation little more than a century old, Italy gave birth to Europe's first urban civilization in its glorious renaissance cities. Italy finally achieved unity and played a major role in European affairs, which unfortunately included two world wars and the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini. More than is the case with most countries Italian history is the history of its great cities like Rome, Florence, Venice, and Milan. We will focus on those centers, especially Rome, which is also the home of the Popes whose role in Italian and world history is immense, and Florence, the home of great artists and such great modern figures as Dante, Machiavelli, and Galileo.

0146. Russia: Nationality and Empire (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0110.)

This course surveys Russian political and cultural developments from earliest times to the present emphasizing the issues of empire and nationality that have shaped the multicultural Russian/Soviet/Russian state. Peasant issues, the political role of Russian intellectuals, and the empire's ambiguous relationship to the West will also be stressed. The course will also examine the difficult situation left behind after the fall of communism and the implications of the end of the Cold War.

0147. History of Spain and Portugal (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0185.)

Chronological and thematic survey of the history of Spain and Portugal. Includes the impact of ancient era Roman occupation, the medieval era Islamic conquest and Christian Reconquista, the apogee of Spanish and Portuguese influence and world power in the sixteenth century, and the experiences of mid-twentieth century fascism and late twentieth century social democracy.

0150. History of Nazi Germany (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0182.)

This course studies the rise and decline of Hitler's Third Reich, from its "intellectual" origins in the 19th century and World War I, through the meteoric rise of the National Socialist movement during the early 1930's, to its demise in the ruins of Berlin in 1945. Special attention is given to the sources of support for Nazism among German voters, the structure of the National Socialist state, the role of Adolf Hitler, the Holocaust, and the causes and consequences of the Second World War.

0155. Film in European History (3 s.h.)

The renowned film historian Anton Kaes once wrote: "Historical films interpret national history for the broad public and thus produce, organize, and, to a large degree, homogenize public memory. Surpassing schools and universities, film, and television have become the most effective (and paradoxically least acknowledged) institutional vehicles for shaping historical consciousness." This course seeks to right that imbalance by acknowledging and studying the way that films (and other visual media) teach us about history. Using prominent American and European films (primarily), students will learn to critically analyze visual media, examining them for content, bias, and interpretation. The course will be organized around a small number of units covering key episodes in modern European history (for example, the French revolution, the World Wars, imperialism) and will provide both the historical background/context for the period and the intellectual tools necessary to evaluate and study films as historical documents.

0156. Gender, Class, Nation (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0140.)

An exploration of social and economic roles of women and men in modern Europe. Comparison of the impact of gender, class, and nationality on middle-class, working-class and peasant women and men in England, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia. The effects of industrialization, nationalism, war, fascism, communism, and the welfare state on women's and men's lives. The evolution of the role of girls and women in the family and the changing status of single and married women in the home and the workplace.

0157. Gender, War, and Society (3 s.h.)

In wartime, the traditional organization of society is often radically altered to meet the pragmatic and ideological needs of triumphing in the ongoing conflict. Ideas about gender - i.e., how masculinity and femininity are defined - are frequently subject to radical revision in the context of a society at war. This course examines the European and, to a lesser extent, the American experiences of war during the two World Wars and the intervening twenty year period, to understand how war and ideas of gender are related. Using both primary and secondary source materials, as well as films about World Wars I and II, the course looks at the experiences of men and women on the front lines and on the home front, those who participated in the wars and those who resisted them, those who benefited from war and those who were its victims. The course examines not only how wartime experiences construct and revise ideas about gender, but also how the rhetoric of gender is often used to further wartime aims.

R160. Race and Ethnicity in American History (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

This course deals centrally with the social process by which societies create racial and ethnic groups and define their place in relation to other racial or ethnic groups. Because the emergence of racial and ethnic groups is a historical process, the course will examine American history from the colonial period to the present in order to understand the changing ways that Americans have viewed each other and divided into groups. In short, the course will be rooted in specific processes in American history, but will examine how America formed groups that are given power and prestige, recognized as "real" Americans, discriminated against, marginalized, enslaved or killed. The groups to be examined include, but are not limited to, Blacks, Native Americans, Irish-Americans, Italian-Americans, Chinese-Americans, Jews, and Chicanos.

R161. African American History to 1865 (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

(Formerly: History R233.)

This course will examine the activities of African Americans in America from slavery to 1865. Among the topics to be studied are: Slavery, The American Revolution, and the Civil War. In addition, much attention will be devoted toward emphasizing the multi-dimensional aspect of the African American Community, and the crucial role which African American women have played in America will be stressed. The course will focus on themes and questions which are essential to an understanding of the past and to an understanding of the present struggles for full citizenship on the part of African Americans. This course meets the university Studies in Race requirement.

R162. African American History 1865- Present (3 s.h.) SS. Core: RS.

(Formerly: History R234.)

This course will examine the activities of African Americans in America from Reconstruction to the present. Among the topics to be studied are: Reconstruction, the evolution of African American leadership, the Harlem Renaissance, the Civil Rights Movement, and Black Power. In addition, much attention will be devoted toward emphasizing the multi-dimensional aspect of the African American Community, and the crucial role which African American women have played in America will also be stressed. The course will focus on themes and questions which are essential to an understanding of the past and to an understanding of the present struggles for full citizenship on the part of African Americans. This course meets the university Studies in Race requirement.

R163. Asian American History (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

(Formerly: History R237.)

An introductory survey of the historical experiences of Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South, and Southeast Asian immigrants in the United States. Considers economic, social, political, and cultural trends, beginning with the arrival of the Chinese in the 1830s and ending with issues facing Asian-Americans today. Includes the development and significance of Asian-American communities and culture as well as approaches to the study of Asian-Americans in racial hierarchies. The aims of the course are to analyze commonalities and differences in the historical and contemporary experiences of Asian ethnic groups and to explore perspectives on the position of Asians in U.S. society - assimilation, model minority, institutional racism, and internal colonialism. Instructional methods include lectures and audio-visual materials, but they also emphasize active student participation in learning through discussion, oral reports, and written assignments. This course meets the university Studies in Race requirement.

R164. California Dreams, California Nightmares (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

Over the century and a half since California was forcibly incorporated into the United States, it has exercised a powerful role upon the imagination and reality of every generation. California has been, at once, the golden gate of opportunity and the grapes of wrath of the downtrodden; social mobility and the policy of incarceration, the glamour of Hollywood and monotony of tract housing, the high-tech of Silicon Valley and the high-sweat of agricultural labor, the Eden of natural bounty and the ecological disaster of sprawl and smog. This course concentrates on the historical role that categories of race have played in defining by whose means, to whose benefit, and in whose image California's wealth would be produced and consumed. As an intermediate-level history course, California Dreams, California Nightmares offers a mix of primary and secondary sources, emphasizes the interaction of multiple causal factors, and encourages students to interpret and to write analytical historical arguments. It is also designed to fulfill the Studies in Race requirement. In addition to discussion, lecture, and common readings, methods of instruction in the course include use of a computer-assisted classroom to provide image and text projections, video clips, and internet linkages.

0167. History of Philadelphia (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0071.)

This course is intended as an introduction to the History of Philadelphia, broadly defined as the region as well as the city, and assumes no background or deeply developed interest in American history. It presents a general survey that can pique the curiosity of anyone who wants to explore one of the nation's most exciting cities, but it is also meant to be especially useful to students imagining careers in such diverse fields as hospitality and tourism, journalism and education, environmental studies and law. The course will examine both how national and international events (say, the Revolution or the rise of the modern global economy) impacted the city, and also how the city experienced forces (like the adoption of the automobile) that transformed it.

0170. Establishments, Sects, and Cults in the Modern United States (3 s.h.)

In the years between 1945 and the present many Americans insisted, with great fervor, that the U.S. government and the U.S. way of life were both based on what they called the "Judeo-Christian tradition." But those years also saw an increasing American fascination with a whole range of religious practices, the practices of Pagans, Muslims, Native Americans, Buddhists, and Hindus, for example, that seemed to clearly lie outside of "the Judeo-Christian tradition" that (some) Americans wanted to naturalize.

0171. Growing Up in America (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0220.)

This course will examine the changing perception and experience of growing up in the United States from colonial times to the present. It will argue that childhood and adolescence are social constructions that change over time. The course will explore the emergence of childhood and adolescence as distinct stages in the life cycle, the evolving role of the family in the process of growing up, and the increasing importance of social institutions other than the family in the lives of the young. Particular attention will be paid to the difference between growing up rich or poor, black or white, male or female, and rural or urban. Finally, it will consider the reciprocal relationship between popular culture and the lives of young Americans.

0172. Sexuality and Gender in American History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0102.)

How do sexuality and gender shape the way a society views the behavior of men and women? How do they create images and stereotypes of ideal or "typical" female and male behavior? And how do the ways in which people actually act compare to the society's conventional ideas about how they ought to act? This course takes us from the beginning of the end of the nineteenth century to the present, exploring the social, cultural, and political dimensions of the public and private roles of women and men in the United States. It examines changing cultural values and social norms of masculinity and femininity and consider the actual behavior of women and men in the family, at work and at play, in love, and in the live of the nation. It also probes the ways in which race, social class, and sexual orientation have affected the experience of gender.

0173. Modern U.S. History Through Film (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0010.)

This course will examine aspects of U.S. history in the twentieth century through the use of public released feature motion pictures. In this visually oriented society, every student encounters images of history and culture on an almost daily basis. Critical thinking about the visual media must be learned. Every motion picture is a primary document that can be read, interpreted, and studied with as much depth as a written document. Because of their complexity, however, motion pictures reveal a vast array of contemporary attitudes specific to their period. A series of motion pictures will be shown illustrating different aspects of American history. All the films are produced in the historical period under discussion. As an intermediate course in the history department's curriculum, the students will learn to critically examine these historical documents for different levels of meaning. They will analyze not only the surface plots of the films, but the underlying historical assumptions that provided the intellectual underpinning of the movies. They will write papers based on their abilities to analyze the visual documents and fashion an historical argument.

0174. Popular Culture in 20th Century America (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0217.)

This course examines the roles that stereotypes, fashions, sports, the automobile, movies, radio, television, and leisure activities, have played in twentieth century American culture, and the manifestations of political and cultural life that the artifacts and leisure activities of the average American exemplified. A knowledge of the history and development of poplar culture reveals the roots of modern American society and culture, and explains why Americans have not only developed in a unique way, but why their cultural influence has been so great on a global scale. As such, the course allows students to gain a broader view of American society while providing depth and clarity of understanding of it through areas not usually addressed by more traditional avenues of learning. Toward this end, students will write a research paper on a topic in popular culture using written, oral, and visual materials. Emphasis will be placed on the development of the student's topic through an analysis of historical context, asking a proper historical question, analyzing multiple historical factors, and formulating historical arguments.

0175. Recent American History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0215.)

The purpose of this course is to describe the political, social, and economic changes that the United States has experienced in making the transition from the Cold War era to the post-Cold War (and post-industrial) society of the late 20th century. The subject matter should be of interest to students in Education, Journalism, Urban Studies, and Psychology, as well as History majors. The course covers the entire period since World War II, but there is more emphasis on social change since 1970. Topics covered include: the origins of the Cold War; anti-Communism in American society and politics; the Civil Rights movement; the Vietnam War and anti-war movement; conservative backlash; Nixon and Watergate; the rise of a post-industrial economy; post-industrial social trends (gender, race, and the new immigration); and the growing impact of media on society and politics.

0176. History of the American Economy and American Business (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0242.)

This course is intended to provide the student with a history of the development of the American economy with an emphasis on the part which business played in its development. Topics covered include the agricultural economy; the rise of manufacturing; the development of the corporation, the stock exchanges, finance capitalism, and the rise of banking; nineteenth century business cycles; the expansion of the American corporation in the years between the Civil War and the Great Depression; the overseas expansion of business and the development worker's capitalism in the 1920s; the changes produced by the Great Depression and the Second World War; and the rise of the modern economy with its trans-national connections, the movement towards deregulation, and the move from manufacturing to a service economy. Students will be introduced to a number of skills aimed at making them better able to understand the current American economy, to the use of historical data as a means of judging current trends in finance and business, and to some of the major web sites and journal literature on the subject. They will make written and oral presentations in which they defend their ideas, take a mid-term and a final exam, both of which will require students to answer essay questions, and write a short paper (10-15 pages) on a historical topic dealing with business or economic issues.

0177. U.S. Environmental History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0242.)

This course is intended as an introduction to the new field of environmental history, which studies the changing relationships between human beings and the natural world through time. It assumes no background or deeply developed interest in American history, geography, or environmental studies. It presents a general survey that is meant to be especially to students imagining careers in fields as diverse as law and tourism, communications and chemistry. Our central premise throughout will be that much of the familiar terrain of American history looks very different when seen in its environmental context, and that one can learn a great deal about both history and the environment by studying the two together. We will be approaching American environmental history from at least three different angles. First, we will ask how various human activities have historically depended on and interacted with the natural world. Second, we will trace the shifting attitudes toward nature held by different Americans during various periods of their nation's history. Finally, we will ask how human attitudes and activities have worked together to reshape the American landscape. At the same time, we will be tracing the evolution of environmental politics in the United States, so that the course is also a history of conservation and environmentalism in our nation's political life.

0180. American Empire (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0247.)

This course surveys and interprets the creation and growth of the American empire from the colonial era to contemporary times. In doing so, it addresses the fundamental questions of how and why a republic, founded on the lofty principles concerning liberty and equality eloquently expressed in the Declaration of Independence, behaved so aggressively in pursuing territorial and commercial aggrandizement, including the subjugation and in some cases extermination of peoples and nations. The course will also examine the instruments the United States employed to expand its influence and dominion. These include traditional means like force, diplomacy, and economics, and less orthodox methods and agents, ranging from missionaries to movie moguls to the "Marlboro Man." Consequently, a major challenge of this course will be both to arrive at an appropriate definition of "empire," and further, to identify the constituencies from within the private as well as public sectors, and to a degree from the international community, that contributed to the realization of George Washington's vision of the United States as a "rising empire."

0181. United States at War (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0254.)

This course surveys the experience of the United States at war and examines the diverse roles played by the US military in national society. After looking at warfare in the Age of Independence, the course focuses upon the rise of a professional officer corps and the development of the Civil War. Thereafter warfare took place in the context of the US role as a global power: the War of 1898, the two World Wars, and the Cold War. The course concludes with an examination of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars.

0182. U.S. Civil War (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0210.)

This is an intermediate level history course aimed at giving history majors and students in other disciplines such as English and political science, an understanding of the changes in American life brought about the Civil War. Caused by a crisis in the relationship between the two major sections of the country over the existence of slavery in the South and the growing opposition of the North to that institution, the Civil War was the great defining moment in the history of the United States. The war was followed by a long period of occupation by the North of the South and then great bitterness which lasted into the 20th century. Even today, the war has left a major impact on the relations between the races in the country and on the politics of America. Because the war was the product of 80 or more years of history, the first section will deal with the causes of the conflict. The second part of the course will deal with the war itself, focusing upon the military, the social, and political aspects of the Great Rebellion. In the third section, we will concentrate on the long range consequences of the war, including the changes in African American life, the Reconstruction Era, and the long term political results of the Civil War.

0183. Vietnam War (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0256.)

The Vietnam War is a microcosm of the forces that have shaped the twentieth century world: colonialism, imperialism, nationalism, revolution, modernization, nation building, Third World development, capitalism, communism, the cold war, and more. It was a defining moment for both Americans and Vietnamese, although the peoples of neither nation can agree on what precisely it defined. For the United States, the loss of the war produced a crisis of national identity. For Vietnam, the victory meant the culmination of thirty years of revolutionary struggle. To the present day both suffer from the failure to resolve problems inherent in these outcomes. This course is designed to emphasize the war as a problem for both Americans and Vietnamese. The question will be why almost complete strangers prior to World War II became such bitter enemies so soon thereafter, and as a consequence engaged in mortal combat for more than a decade. The strategy will be to explore the social, political, economic, military, and diplomatic dimensions and ramifications from the perspective of each.

0190. Topics in World History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0191. Topics in Third World History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0192. Topics in Women's History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0193. Topics in African History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0194. Topics in Asian History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0195. Topics in Latin American History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

H195. Honors Special Topics (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor

0196. Topics in Middle Eastern History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0197. Topics in European History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0198. Topics in American History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0199. Independent Study (3 s.h.) SS.

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor

0200. The City in History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0385.)

This course looks at the city as a product of human creativity in which the goals of collective life are debated and fought out. The workings of the city are examined in history by focus on the cultural, economic, and political significance of cities as well as on urban design. The course includes visual examples from cities in Europe, West Africa, India, and Southeast Asia as well as a walking tour in the Manayunk section of Philadelphia.

0201. Women in Preindustrial Societies (3 s.h.)

Women's experience in the preindustrial period varied greatly across different regions of the globe, yet there were also important commonalities. This course examines comparatively, in various traditional European and Third World societies, some important themes in women's history: work, sexuality, marriage, social control, science and medicine, and religion. It also discusses ways of studying the history of people who were for the most part not literate and left few traces of their own thoughts and experiences.

0202. Third World Women's Lives (3 s.h.)

Explores the themes of imperialism, colonialism, class, race, interlocking oppressions, commitments to family and community, migration, resistance/insurgency/revolution, collective action, memory, and alternative visions as crossroads of identities in Third World women's lives. Utilizes a variety of source materials with emphasis on the voices of Third World women themselves (testimonies, oral interviews, and documentary visual media). Compares these life texts to those of other working women as they speak to the experiences of being women of color or poor white women in a late capitalist world. Develops the tools for understanding the experiences and perspectives of diverse groups of women to create liberating ways of thinking and living.

0203. Comparative Feudalism (3 s.h.)

This course is designed to introduce students to the study of comparative feudalism in three locales: Ethiopia, Japan, and Western Europe. By taking one case study each from the continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe, the course analyzes the mechanisms of interaction among the "three orders" -- those who fight, those who pray, and those who till the land. The course analyzes the three locales separately, and compares similarities in the general structure of feudal societies as well as differences in their details.

0204. Comparative Slavery (3 s.h.)

This course deals with the study of comparative slavery in four distinct historical-cultural domains: Ancient Greece, "New World" slavery, Arab-Ottoman Islamic civilizations, and Africa. The course analyzes the four locales separately, and compares similarities in the general structure of slave societies as well as differences in their details. Issues pertaining to manumission or the lack of it and integration of ex-slaves into the larger society will be discussed.

0205. Colonialism and Decolonization (3 s.h.)

This course looks at the decline and fall of the modern European empires. It adopts a case study method to allow students to acquire in-depth knowledge of the colonial and post-colonial environment in four distinct regions of the world: Indonesia, North Africa, India and West Africa/Britain. The course examines the cultural construction of colonialism in Indonesia and North Africa, examining such issues as relations between the colonizers and the colonized peoples in terms of race and gender, construction of an imperial architecture and environment, and modes of resistance to the imperial project. Moving to India, the course looks at the rise of colonial nationalism, including the various discourses and tactics that are implemented to resist, modify, and ultimately abolish colonialism. Finally, the course examines the repercussions of imperialism for the contemporary, discussing post-colonial theory and the cultural, economic, political, and demographic effects of de-colonization on both Europe and its former colonies.

0212. Southern Africa: A History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0303.)

This course deals with the history of Southern Africa focusing on South Africa. It also includes the history of Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A good part of the course deals with a detailed study of the history of apartheid in South Africa from its inception to its political demise in 1994. It also deals with the history of African resistance against the Dutch-British racial order. Some of the themes of the course include: African societies in Southern Africa; European slave traders, settlers, and colonizers (Portuguese, Dutch, British, and German); racism and apartheid in South Africa and Southern Africa at large; African nationalism and the struggle against white domination; the demise of Portuguese colonialism in Angola and Mozambique; the political demise of apartheid and post-apartheid Southern Africa.

0215. Asian Women in Transition (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0334.)

Introduces and compares the recent historical experience of women in Asia, especially China, Japan, and Korea. Major topics include women and the family, women and work, and women as creators and activists. The course focuses on the situations of rural as well as urban women, and ordinary as well as elite women in the late 19th and 20th centuries.

0216. Issues in Premodern Chinese History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0320.)

This course adopts a thematic approach to explore key questions, trends, and dynamics in premodern Chinese history. Emphasis in source materials is on primary documents/texts and literature. The course enables students who have completed History/Asian Studies 115 to delve more deeply into historical problems of China's premodern past, but is also suitable for those with no prior course work on China.

0217. The Chinese Revolution (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0321.)

A general introduction to the Chinese Revolution (1921-49) from the perspective of sociopolitical history. Special emphasis on: the internal historical trends and external (semi-colonialist) interventions which shaped the struggle for revolutionary change in the twentieth century; conditions in the countryside on the eve of revolution; the urban and rural contours of the Communist Movement; the evolution of Mao Zedong's thought; and revolutionary process and dynamics.

0218. Contemporary China (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0322.)

This course examines society, the state, and popular politics in the Peoples' Republic of China from 1949 to the present. Special emphasis on: revolutionary transformation and socialist construction during the Maoist years (1949-79); the postsocialist trajectory and its critique over the last two decades.

0219. Modern India (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0332.)

Colonialism, nationalism, non-violent political struggle, independence and adjustment, regionalism and tension, leadership in a third world movement, and relations with the United States are the major political issues covered. Social issues include coping with inequality, population explosion, hunger, regional violence, and new popular organizations. Major personalities reviewed include Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharial Nehru, Sardar Patel, Indira Gandhi, Japaprakash Narayan, and Sir Aurobindo.

0220. Japan Today (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0330.)

An examination of important social, political, and economic trends in Japan from 1945 to the 1990s through lecture, discussion, audio-visual materials, and group oral reports. Topics include the Occupation, the "economic miracle," state and society, the world of work, women, and gender, international relations, impact of affluence, post-bubble Japan, and varying approaches to the study of postwar Japanese history and society.

0221. Women and Society in Japan (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0337.)

An exploration of the changing position of women in Japanese society from ancient times to the 1990s. We will investigate female goddesses, shamanesses, female emperors, famous classical and modem women writers, women of the early and late warrior age, and women in industrializing and postwar Japan through lecture and discussion based on historical documents, secondary writings, audiovisual materials, and literature, including works written by Japanese women themselves. Major themes include: women and religion, women and household or family, women and the state, women and the arts, and women and work.

0222. History of Vietnam (3 s.h.)

Emphasizing cultural, social, and economic factors, "History of Vietnam" traces Vietnamese history from its mythological origins to the twenty-first century. Topics include indigenous social formations, the period of Chinese domination, the rise of independent Vietnamese dynasties, the French colonial era, the Vietnamese Revolution, and the three Indochina Wars, including the Vietnam Conflict in the twentieth century. It will close with consideration of life under the current Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

0225. History of Brazil (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0348.)

Brazil is one of the world's largest nations being inferior in territorial size only to the United States, Russia, and China. With more than 150,000,000 people, Brazil is second in population among western hemisphere nations to the United States, and far larger than any Latin American nation. Brazilians can claim national unity solidly based on a common language and common cultural heritage. Brazilians are descended of native Americans, Africans, and Europeans, but can claim a recent history relatively free of ethnic or racial strife. Brazil is rich in natural resources, and has one of the world's few natural resource frontiers. Finally, Brazil continues to produce outstanding architects, artists, writers, composers, social scientists and legal intellectuals, religious and political leaders, entrepreneurs and athletes. At the same time, persistent problems block Brazilian development. They include widespread racism and class bias, excessive dependence on foreign capital and technology, a shamefully inadequate public school system, a perverse distribution of income that favors the wealthy, and fragile democratic institutions. After 500 years of history, Brazilians have immense tasks before them, while the promise of national greatness remains unfulfilled.

0226. Puerto Rican History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0354.)

This course explores particular issues related to the political, economic, and social development of Puerto Rico with special emphasis given to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The course will not only address historical paragons but also questions of interpretations. In each class a combination of readings, discussion, lectures, and videos will be used to view the various issues in a comprehensive manner.

0230. Israel and the Arabs (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0314.)

An exploration of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from the late nineteenth century to the present. Includes discussion of the changing relationship between Jews and Arabs; the role of religion in Middle Eastern politics; the evolution of Zionism; the development of Arab and Palestinian nationalism; the creation and growth of the State of Israel; the tensions between Israel and its neighbors; the rise of the PLO and the quest for Palestinian statehood; and peace prospects in the Middle East.

0231. Modern Middle East (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0315.)

This course surveys the history of the modern Middle East, analyzing some of the great controversies of the region. How the modern Middle East arose, why so many conflicts in the region in modern times have taken place, why the Great Powers have been so involved, and how the struggles of the working class have fared are among the questions to be addressed.

0235. Greek History (3 s.h.) SS.

(Formerly: History 0162.)

The Greek History survey begins with the Bronze Age and ends shortly after the Peloponnesian Wars. Students will read a narrative history, a study of the art in historical context, and a selection of the ancient literary sources upon which our knowledge is based. Strong emphasis is placed on the archaeological material and how it is used to augment the literary sources. The philosophical and cultural achievements of ancient Greece will be put in historical context.

0236. Roman History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0164.)

This survey of Roman History begins with the foundation of Rome in the 8th century B.C. and ends with the founding of the Christian capital of the Empire at Constantinople. Students will read a narrative history, a study of various aspects of Roman society and culture, and a selection of the ancient sources upon which our knowledge is based. Archaeological material will be used to augment the literary sources. The influence of Rome on later Western Civilization in government and law will be studied as well as its role in determining the foundation of Christianity.

0238. Belief and Society in Pre-Modern Europe (3 s.h.)

An examination of changes in belief systems (both religious and ideological) and their impact on, and influence by, the society around them. The course will focus especially on beliefs as understood and interpreted by the wider society, not just a few intellectuals. Focus is on diversity of belief and practice within an overwhelmingly, but not monolithically, Christian society.

0239. Power and Conflict in Pre-Modern Europe (3 s.h.)

An examination of the kinds of power struggles that took place in Europe during the medieval and early modern period, and the military, legal, and other means used to resolve them. Struggles among monarchs and territorial magnates; the Crusades; heresy and its suppression; religious wars; and much more local and personal disputes as well.

0242. Art, Culture, and European Societies (3 s.h.)

Art, Culture, and Society will address the relationship between art and society during periods of major political change and upheaval in Western Europe from the French Revolution to the Great War. The course will consider in particular the use of art during the French Revolution, the revolutions of 1830 and 1848; the revolutionary Commune of 1870, the First World War, Democracy and the Bauhaus. With these events in mind, the course will address several issues: first, how political leaders used art, ritual, and propaganda to create legitimacy and authority; secondly, how minority groups used art, ritual, and the press to criticize and destabilize those in power. In our analysis of various forms of representation, students will be expected to learn how artistic style as well as composition conveys social and political meanings. In addition to the high arts, the course will include some discussion of the expansion of artistic media through the lithographic press, the daily newspaper, photography, and advertising. We will conclude with some consideration of political propaganda and populist art during the tumultuous decades that preceded and followed the First World War.

0243. Women's Lives in Modern Europe (3 s.h.) SS.

Women's Lives in Modern Europe treats issues related to women's status and power in Modern European History from the eighteenth century to the present. The emphasis of the course will be on the experiences of women in England, France, Germany, and Russia where many economic and political changes have occurred in the last few centuries. The purpose of this course is to discuss important issues that women have confronted in the past, and that continue to influence problems that women face today such as: personal, economic, and political power, education, sexuality, psychology, and social esteem, women's position in the home and workplace plus the continuing question of conventional versus unconventional gender roles in Western Societies. To supplement a general text and several published sources in European history, students will be reading memoirs and essays written by women on economic, political, and social issues pertaining to women, work, and the family during the past two centuries. Note: History 0243 is a new course (Spring 2000).

0244. French Revolution and Napoleon (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0120.)

This course will treat the history of the French Revolution from the mid-eighteenth century through the Napoleonic era (1750-1821). Material in the course will address varied interpretations of the revolution from classical Marxist to more recent cultural, feminist, and post-modern perspectives on the subject. In addition to various texts on the revolution, the course also includes a detailed discussion of Napoleon Bonaparte's military and political career with due consideration given to the French empire and its impact on the subsequent political configuration of nineteenth-century Europe.

0245. Revolutionary Europe (3 s.h.)

This course will treat major social, political, and cultural revolutions that occurred in Europe and Russia during the modern period. (1789-1917). Through a discussion of specific revolutions, the class will attempt to discern some patterns in the causes and development of revolutionary events. The course will consider historical factors related to the outbreak of major revolutions such as rural economics, industrial changes, class formation and social vision prior to, or during revolutionary periods. Specific topics will include: the French Revolution; Industrial Changes and Class Conflict, the Revolution of 1848, the Impact of Peasant Rebellions, the Commune of 1870, Bismarck's political and cultural revolution, and the Russian Revolution.

0246. Blood and Iron: 19th Century European Diplomacy (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0126.)

This course will be a survey of the history of European diplomacy from the wars of the French Revolution until the outbreak of World War One in 1914. Modern warfare, nationalism, and tremendous economic, social, and technological upheaval shaped the nineteenth century and fundamentally altered the way nation-states interacted. Therefore, we cannot be content in this course to study the biographies of Metternich, Napoleon III, Bismarck, and other great diplomats of the nineteenth century, though they will receive due attention. In order to explain the events that in many ways laid the groundwork for the world situation in our own time, we will examine cultural and intellectual movements, military and scientific innovations, and political and social changes that still affect the way nations conduct diplomacy.

0249. Rise of the European Dictators (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0122.)

By the late 1930s, dictatorships and democracies faced each other across increasingly hostile borders. Understanding how this situation developed and why dictatorship seemed a natural response to the challenges facing Europe at the time can help us explain some of the choices people make in our own time. Rise of the European Dictatorships will focus on the growing turmoil which characterized the early part of the 20th century, including the First World War, the Bolshevik Revolution, the growth of Fascism and Nazism, and the outbreak of the Second World War. This course is the first semester of a year-long survey of the political, social, economic, and cultural history of twentieth-century Europe.

0250. Europe Divided and United, 1939-1945 (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0124.)

Over the past 50 years, Europe has been both more starkly divided and more peacefully unified than at almost any other time in history. The Cold War split Europe on opposite sides of an Iron Curtain, while the recent collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has created unprecedented opportunities for European nations to act in concert. This course examines the ways in which World War II and subsequent events created the conditions for these developments by finally destroying the era of European world dominance. European nations and peoples have adjusted to their new (diminished?) role in the world in fascinating ways. Highlights will include the Second World War, the growing Cold War, the revolutions of 1968, and the collapse of the authoritarian governments in Eastern Europe. Special attention will be paid to the efforts aimed at the economic and political unification of Europe up to the present day. Business, tourism, and other majors will find this course an invaluable introduction to the economic and cultural environment of Europe.

0253. Historic Britain, 1688-1815 (3 s.h.)

This course examines British history from the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 through the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Using a variety of primary and secondary sources, including novels, the course will examine the debates and arguments that contributed to the establishment of the modern industrialized nation-state in Britain. The course examines such important events as the industrial revolution and its implications for Britain and the world, the development of a constitutional parliamentary form of government which was important for the nascent United States, as well as for Britain, the development of mass politics and radical politics, and Britain's involvement in European and world affairs.

0254. Modern Britain: Empire, War, Rock and Roll (3 s.h.)

This course examines the history of Britain from the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 until the present. Using a variety of historical sources, including primary and secondary historical sources, as well as novels and journalistic reportage, the course looks at the critical questions that have faced Britain and have influenced world history over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Among the issues to be examined are the development of mass politics, and the inclusion of the working classes and women in the British polity, the development and Thatcherite decline of the welfare state, the construction and demise of the British empire, Britain's military and diplomatic roles in the two world wars, and position in the emerging European Union. The course examines these questions from a variety of different angles, including political, cultural, economic and social.

W255. Jews, Judaism, and the Modern World (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

(Formerly: History W156.)

This course considers the impact of modernity on Jews and Judaism in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, the United States, and the Middle East. We will discuss the process of emancipation and assimilation; religious reform movements and modern Orthodoxy; the emergence of the Jewish "New Woman"; the involvement of Jews in liberalism, socialism and communism; the evolution of Zionism and the State of Israel; modern antisemitism and the Holocaust; and the complex issues relating to modern Jewish identity.

W256. Eastern Europe: Nationalism, Authoritarianism, and Communism (3 s.h.) S.

(Formerly: w355.)

The development of nation-states of Eastern Europe in the twentieth century, including Poland, Hungary, romania, Bulgaria and Albania, as well as Czechoslovakia, Yugolslavia, and their successor states. Topics include the emrgence of national identities; the break-up of the Habsburg, Russian and Ottoman Empires; the redrawing of boundaries and problems of national minorities after World War I; the rise of authoritarian governments during the interwar years; World War II and the Communist takeovers; the varieties of Communist regimes and the impact of Communisim on daily life; the post-Communist era and the resurgence of nationalism and authoritarianism in the Balkans. Each student will be expected to specialize in one country or nationality.

0257. Early Russian Empire, 1547-1905 (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0172.)

This course will examine many of the dramatic political and social events of the construction of Russian empire from the 16th century to the Revolt of 1905. Major attention will be paid to peasant issues, the role of the intelligentsia, and international competition.

0258. Russia: Revolution, State, and Empire (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0175.)

Today people in Russia and the other former Soviet republics are struggling to understand and interpret their recent history: the visions upon which it was founded, the tragedies and triumphs that altered those visions, and the reasons for its eventual collapse. This course will be doing the same. The dramatic collapse of the USSR in 1991 was, in fact, only the latest in the series of revolutions and other upheavals that have characterized Russian history in the twentieth century. This course will examine the political history of the country as it moved from absolute monarchy through dictatorship under Stalin, to increasingly powerful movements for change from Khrushchev to Gorbachev. It will also study the economic revolutions that made the Soviet economy the world's second largest, and the economic weaknesses that became increasingly evident in the 1980s and 1990s. Finally, it will look at the experiences and aspirations of the Russian and Soviet people themselves: how they have been affected by the radical ideas and violent upheavals of the twentieth century, and how they participated in the creation of a unique Soviet polity and culture.

0265. Colonial America (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0201.)

Many important aspects of US society developed significantly before the Revolution. The purpose of this course is to understand better how this society took shape in that formative early era. The first classes deal with some general issues that colonizers faced as they tried to form and develop settlements in North America, and the way the English entered into this process. Then characteristics of how three regions of the colonies evolved are examined: the South, New England, and the Middle Atlantic. The final few weeks of the course take up changes in political life, economics, and culture that all parts of the colonies experienced in the 1700s and which tended to bring them together towards becoming one new nation, though not a nation without differences and conflicts.

0266. American Revolution and Republic (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0203.)

The central focus of History 0266 is how the United States developed from colonies of great Britain in the middle of the eighteenth century to a nation with continental ambitions in the early nineteenth century. We will study the historical origins of the Revolution, the "radical character" of the revolution as Americans struggled to establish republican governments and social institutions. Special attention is given to the origins of the Constitution and the struggle to define the Constitution in the early republic. Students will read various books which focus on revolutionary history from different perspectives. How did the Revolution alter the history of various groups within the United States. What impact did it have on Americans? The course stresses understanding the Revolution and the early Republic from a variety of historical interpretations. Many of the skills emphasized in the class prepare students to think about how historians solve historical problems. The solving of various historical problems prepare students for graduate school and law school. Historical thinking also prepares students to understand how history is used to address current cultural and political issues. Students will write book review essays in order to develop an understanding of how historians collect evidence, construct historical interpretation and to develop their own interpretations of historical events and personal writing skills.

R267. Race and the US Constitution (3 s.h.) Core: RS.

(Formerly: History R246.)

The central focus of History R267 is how the issue of race has shaped the history of the United States Constitution and how constitutional law contributed to the history of ideas about race in the United States. We study the origins of the law of race and slavery in the pre-revolutionary period and end with understanding the origins of affirmative action in the post-World War II period. Students will read various books about U. S. Constitutional history in order to understand various interpretations of historical events and ideas abut race. Student will also read original court cases about racial minorities in order to develop an understanding of original historical texts. Many of the skills emphasized in the class prepare students for law school, public service, and analyzing the historical roots of contemporary issues. Class discussion about constitutional issues is designed to give students confidence and precision in public speaking. Students will also write book reviews in order to develop an understanding of how historians collect evidence in order to construct historical interpretations and to develop their own interpretations of historical events and their personal writing skills.

0270. Nineteenth-Century America (3 s.h.)

This is an advanced level history course aimed at giving history majors and students in other disciplines such as English and Political Science an understanding of the changes in American life during the Nineteenth Century. This is truly a "World We Have Lost," a society dominated by agricultural, but becoming increasingly industrial and urbanized. But even though a visit to the world of 100 years ago is as foreign to contemporary students as the visit by the anthropologist to a non-western culture, the consequence for modern American life is immense. The topics discussed in this course are related to the changes in the United States that promoted its development as a multicultural democracy and an economic superpower.

0271. Twentieth-Century America (3 s.h.)

This course analyzes American politics, society and culture in the twentieth century. Among the topics to be analyzed are the changing role of the presidency from McKinley to Clinton, progressivism, World War I, the conflictive 1920's, the depression and the New Deal, World War II, affluence in the 1950's, the Cold War, antiCommunism, racism, the civil rights movement, the rebellious 1960's, the war in Vietnam, Nixon, the Great Society, the women's movement and gender issues, the conservative backlash, and the new diversity.

0272. American Cultural History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0224.)

This course will not attempt to cover all aspects of American cultural history in one semester. Instead, it will examine some important themes from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It will use material drawn from elite and popular sources to explore the meaning of "culture" in a diverse, democratic society. It will ask when and why Americans began to think that there was such a thing as American culture. It will interrogate this culture for some basic elements, taking into account the role of such important features of American life as liberalism, pragmatism, patriotism, consumerism, and modernism as well as the impact of science, technology, the arts, and religion. It will distinguish between public culture, intended for the edification of all, and the private cultures of different subgroups.

0273. History of the American Presidency (3 s.h.)

This course examines historical developments in the office of the US president from its establishment to contemporary times. Through lectures, discussions, class projects, and outside assignments, we will explore the historical literature dealing with the creation and evolution of the office; the presidents who have shaped the office; the powers and limitations of the office in both foreign and domestic affairs; the president's relationship to the courts, the congress, the people, and the press; and the broad political developments essential to our understanding of the place of the presidency within our changing political culture. This course asks: How has our most important national political institution come to be what it is? Two themes permeate the course: (1) What is the source and nature of presidential power? (2) Who are the men who have held the office and why have they failed or succeeded? This course prepares students for further historical or other academic studies and for related professional careers in law, journalism, or executive management. More importantly, the course engages students' concerns as life-long participants in American democracy.

0274. History of American Science (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0136.)

This course approaches the history of science in America as a characteristically modern way of thinking, investigating questions, and designing technology. We will consider the development of the scientific approach to problem solving as a key factor in understanding major issues in American intellectual, social, and political history. We will focus on three periods in American history. In the first, from the founding of the British North American colonies to the mid-nineteenth century, we will concentrate on the challenge that early science posed to religious faith. In the second, from the mid-nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries, we will examine how science and technology came to be central to modern society. In the third, the latter half of the 20th century, we will analyze the competing claims of science, politics and religion. We will pay attention in each period to the multiple social contexts within which science happens. We will be especially concerned with issues of wealth; gender; race and ethnicity; the family; schools and universities as institutions of learning; and the uses of science and technology for economic development; social welfare; and military and political power.

0278. Development of the Modern American City (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0226.)

The course examines the way that the American city has undergone two revolutionary changes in the 135 years since the Civil War. In the mid- to late 19th century the city went from a walking city to a streetcar city, altering the basic social and economic geography. Then in the 20th century American cities were transformed from streetcar cities to automobile cities, again revolutionizing the cities' basic geography. The two transformations were rooted in technological innovation in such areas as transportation, power, and building construction. But the changes also depended upon what American urban dwellers chose to make of the technologies. History, by examining the way that American cities have changed in the past, can illuminate what the American city has become and thus can provide insight into the factors that should be taken into account in influencing the future of cities.

0279. Historical Roots of Urban Crime (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0366.)

The course focuses on two aspects of the history of the underworld of American cities: The first aspect might be called the life within the underworld, or what it means to live the life of a criminal. The course examines how bookmakers or madams run their businesses, how pickpocket gangs pick pockets, how loan sharks collect their money, and what kind of culture and social life characterizes those who are part of the underworld life. The second aspect is the way that underworld activities both reflect and influence the wider society. The course, then, examines the interrelationships of crime, on the one hand, and ethnic groups, neighborhood structure, urban politics, criminal justice institutions, the rise of professional sports, the changing sexual mores of the society, and even such aspects as the changing role of the family and the impact of technology. Crime becomes a prism through which students will learn about the history of American urban society.

0280. Modern American Social History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0222.)

The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the main elements of American social/economic development during the industrial period, approximately 1870-1940. Topics covered include the growth of new industries and changing work conditions, urbanization, class divisions, immigration and black migration, the changing status of women and the family, and the impact of the Great Depression and the New Deal on American life. Both secondary and primary sources, including two important novels with social history themes, are used in the course, and students are required to write a essay (and give an in-class report) that analyzes a specific primary source dealing with one of the aspects of social history covered in the lectures and required readings. The take-home final exam essay also requires that students evaluate sources. Class participation in discussing the readings is also an important part of the course.

0281. Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in America (3 s.h.)

United States Women's history has come of age during the last two decades. There is now a recognition that there is no universal women's experience, rather American women come from diverse racial and ethnic, as well as cultural backgrounds. Therefore women's experiences must be examined within the larger context in which they have functioned. Utilizing the full context of American history from the colonial period to 1980, this course will explore the various ways in which gender, race, and ethnicity, along with other aspects of identity, have shaped the lives and experiences of women in the United States. It will examine the complex relationships between the construction of personal identities, the material realities of women's lived experiences, cultural and ideological systems, and social institutions. Of necessity we must look at the bonds and conflicts among women and between women and men. Issues of race, gender, and ethnicity must be addressed within the context of American women's history.

0282. African American Church and Black Liberation (3 s.h.)

Race has been and is a central issue in America. Race has played a very important role in the lives of black people and in the history of African Americans. Historically the black church has been a central institution for addressing pressing societal issues which threaten the existence of black people. African Methodism, the first major black Christian organization came into existence as a liberation movement and a protest against racism and segregation in the Christian Church. Utilizing selected historic periods, i.e.., ante-bellum, Civil War and Reconstruction, the 1920s and 1930s, and the 1960s, this course will explore the meaning of freedom and liberation as defined by the historic African American church and its leadership, and will examine the different ideologies and strategies employed by church leaders in addressing and resolving issues regarding the individual and collective freedom of black people. American and African American history will be used as the context, for examining issues, events, movements and personalities important to understanding the role and impact of the black church on the development of liberationist black thought and movements during different periods.

0285. Jewish Experience in America (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0229.)

This course considers evolution of the Jewish community in the United States from its colonial beginnings to the present day. Topics include the immigrant experiences of various waves of migration, especially from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union; the development of the major religious movements within Judaism: Reform, Conservative, Orthodox and Reconstructionist; the role of Jews in American life and politics; the changing roles of American Jewish women; American antisemitism; Black-Jewish relations; relationship between American Jews and Israel; assimilation and identity.

0287. Women in U.S. History (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0244.)

The principal theme of this course in women's history can be summed up in this phrase: "Unity, Difference, and Diversity: The Search for Sisterhood and Beyond." Working with a textbook, a number of scholarly articles, and documents that come from throughout American history, we will explore the ways in which women have both been affected by, and helped to shape, this nation's history. Our emphasis will be on how women of different socioeconomic backgrounds, races, and ethnic groups have experienced colonization, American expansion, sectionalism, the industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, war, economic depression, cultural transformations and political change. We will be looking not only at commonalities but also differences among women as well as the conflicts between women and a society based on male supremacy. We will be exploring how race, ethnicity, and class affect the experience of gender.

0288. Sexual Minorities in the United States (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0230.)

This course focuses upon lesbians, gays, and other sexual minorities on their interaction in a hostile society. The course starts with study of sexuality in general, with a European background, and why it was something of a prohibited subject before Dr. Alfred Kinsey. We examine Kinsey through the eyes of an associate, Wardell Pomeroy, and then move on to case studies of black and white sexual minorities in their search for space. The course then turns to the first publicly elected gay martyr and the reactions following his assassination. The focus then shifts to women of color, their special problems and interactions with the lesbian and gay community. The effect of AIDS will also be discussed.

0290. America's Rise to Globalism (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0248.)

This course will trace the contours of U.S. foreign policy from its colonial origins through the destruction of the myth of isolationism produced by the attack on Pearl Harbor. Although the syllabus proceeds chronologically, the lectures and readings emphasize thematic continuities and discontinuities. These themes include the ideological, strategic, economic, cultural, and racial influences on America's foreign relations; mission, manifest destiny, and continental expansion; issues of war, peace, and security; crisis management and mismanagement; the closing frontier and imperialism; Wilsonianism and its critics; independent internationalism; and personal versus coalition diplomacy. Because the study of diplomatic history is highly interpretative, and the assigned studies reflect competing interpretations, all students will be expected to question, comment upon, and yes, even criticize the readings and lectures. In doing so, emphasis will be placed on recognizing and assessing the strategies historians employ to collect and use evidence in order to advance arguments. Students will be required to "volunteer" at the start of each session to summarize briefly and cogently the primary issues and arguments covered in the preceding one, and students should be prepared to respond to questions and references to the readings that will be incorporated into each session's lectures.

0291. Superpower America (3 s.h.)

(Formerly: History 0249.)

This course traces the ebb and flow of the twentieth century effort to establish and institutionalize a new framework and set of norms for the international order based on U.S. leadership. Overlaying the narrative history of Presidential polices from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton is a number of interrelated themes, including: the rise and fall of the United States as a creditor nation; the tension between America's idealistic impulses and the perceived need to behave "realistically" in a frequently hostile environment; the impact of domestic influences on foreign policy; the emergence of bipolarism and Soviet-American antagonism; the challenge to bipolarism posed by the Third World and regional disputes; atomic diplomacy and the balance of terror; "existential deterrence" and arms limitation; crisis management and avoidance; and, finally, the end of the Cold War, the implosion of the former Soviet Union, and the implications of the Russian empire's collapse for restructuring the global system, reordering America's international priorities, and producing a national strategy that succeeds "containment." The assigned readings reflect an array of interpretations and approaches to the study of the history of U.S. foreign policy. Although no "formal discussions" are scheduled, students will be provided the opportunity and encouraged discuss freely their responses to and questions about these interpretations during every class. In additions, at least once each student will be required to present a succinct oral summary of the fundamental issues raised in the previous session, and time will be allotted to examine and dissect the distributed documents.

0320. Topics in Comparative History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0321. Topics in World History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0322. Topics in Women's History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0323. Topics in Third World History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0324. Topics in African History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0325. Topics in Asian History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0326. Topics in Latin American History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0327. Topics in Middle-Eastern History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0328. Topics in European History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0329. Topics in American History (3 s.h.)

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

W330. Social Movements and Alternative Histories (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

A comparative historical examination of rural social protest and rural social movements with particular emphasis on the questions of community/class, nation, and alternative nationalisms. The course critically introduces some of the literature in social movement theory and utilizes primary and secondary works to examine a number of specific case studies drawn from global context.

W340. Modern Japan: Empire, War, Society (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

(Formerly: History 0326.)

Was early modern Japan static and unchanging? Do the roots of Japan's modern achievements lie in early modern culture? What happened to Japan after the 1868 Meiji Restoration, and why? Was modernity a blessing or a curse? A survey of Japanese people, culture, and the events and trends at home and abroad that will help you find answers to these questions. Course assignments emphasize development of research and writing skills, specifically the writing of book reviews and short historiography essays, as well as verbal expression of critical reading and analytic skills. Five worksheets and lectures show how to do the writing assignments which will consist of: two five-page historiography essays on assigned readings and one comparative book review on a topic the student selects in consultation with the instructor.

W345. Revolutionary Mexico (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

México revoltoso or the rebellious quality of Mexican society forms the central theme of this course. Particular emphasis will be devoted to the causes, trajectory, and consequences of the Revolution of 1910 and to the remaking of Mexico from a rural, agrarian society into an industrial, urban member of NAFTA. The course conflict with the US over imperial expansion, the border, migration, and narcotics. It concludes with the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas, economic restructuring, and the elections of 2000. Instruction takes place through discussion, lecture, reading, and the use of audio-visual and computer equipment. Writing intensive requirement met through the choice of a major research paper or four smaller essays that focus on research and historical interpretation.

W356. Eastern Europe: Nationalism, Authoritarianism, and Communism (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

(Formerly: History W178.)

The development of nation-states of Eastern Europe in the twentieth century, including Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania, as well as Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and their successor states. Topics include the emergence of national identities; the break-up of the Habsburg, Russian, and Ottoman Empires; the redrawing of boundaries and problems of national minorities after World War I; the rise of authoritarian governments during the interwar years; World War II and the Communist takeovers; the varieties of Communist regimes and the impact of Communism on daily life; the post-Communist era and the resurgence of nationalism and authoritarianism in the Balkans. Each student will be expected to specialize in one country or nationality.

W370. Social History of American Medicine (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

(Formerly: History W257.)

This course in the history of public health examines the shifting boundaries between public and private medicine, professional authority and personal responsibility, and prevention and therapy from the colonial period into the 20th century. Specific topics include epidemics, environmental concerns, occupational hazards, immigration, and ethnicity.

W386. American History Writing Seminar (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

This course will focus on a special topic in US history and assist students in the development of advanced-level skills in historical writing, argumentation, and research. Students will complete a research project during the semester.

Mode: Seminar format.

W387. European History Writing Seminar (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

This course will focus on a special topic in European history and assist students in the development of advanced-level skills in historical writing, argumentation, and research. Students will complete a research project during the semester. Seminar format.

Mode: Seminar format.

W388. Third World History Writing Seminar (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

This course will focus on a special topic in Third World history and assist students in the development of advanced level skills in historical writing, argumentation, and research. Students will complete a research project during the semester.

Mode: Seminar format.

W397. Contemporary Theory and Practice of History (3 s.h.) Core: WI.

Advanced-level examination of the varieties of contemporary historical research and writing. Focus on the kinds of questions contemporary historians investigate and the methods they use in studying issues of change over time. Students will complete a research project during the semester.

0398. Fieldwork in History SS.

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor.

0399. Independent Study

Arranged each semester, please consult with the instructor