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Barbara Wheeler

Departments:

Music Therapy

 

    • B.M. Music Education, Hastings College, Hastings, NE

      M.M. Music Therapy, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL

      Ph.D. Educational Psychology, Fordham University, New York, NY

        

      Dr. Wheeler founded the music therapy program at the University of Louisville in 2000 and taught there until 2011. She holds the designation of Professor Emerita from Montclair State University, where she taught from 1975-2000. She is Visiting Professor at the Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music, Katowice, Poland, and Visiting Instructor, University of Applied Sciences, Würzburg Schweinfurt, Department of Social Studies, Master of Arts in Developmental Music Therapy and Music Therapy with Dementia Patients.

       

      Wheeler has done clinical work along with teaching for most of her career. Her clinical work has been with a variety of clientele and in a number of settings in Nebraska, Georgia, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Kentucky. Most recently, she served as Neurologic Music Therapist at several facilities. In addition to her music therapy credentials, she is a licensed psychologist in New York State, where she has worked with those with drug addictions in a therapeutic community and nursing home residents.


      Wheeler edited Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives and Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition and is now working on editing Music Therapy Research, 3rd Edition. She is also editor of Music Therapy Handbook, which will be published by Guilford Press near the end of 2014. She is also coauthor of Clinical Training Guide for the Student Music Therapist.

       

      She has written a number of articles and chapters on music therapy and done research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Recent research topics include the effects of music therapy on people with brain injuries, the music therapist’s experience of pleasure in working with children with severe disabilities, and aspects of music therapy practicum experiences.

       

      Wheeler has been active in national and international music therapy organizations. She is a past president of the American Music Therapy Association, past Chair of the Commission on Education and Training for the World Federation of Music Therapy, and was recently Interview Co-Editor for Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy. She serves on several journal editorial and advisory boards. She received the AMTA 1999 Publication and Research Award, the 2005 Service Award, Southeastern Region of the AMTA Service Award, and a 2013 President’s Award, Mid-Atlantic Region of AMTA. She has been a keynote speaker at conferences in the US, Europe, Australia, Asia, and Latin America, an external examiner for music therapy programs in Ireland and Australia, and is on the PhD Board for Aalborg University in Denmark.

       

       

       

       

       

       

    • Refereed Articles

      Otera, M., Wada, Y., Wheeler, B. L., & Ichie, M. (2015). Expected Effects of Listening to Music Among Japanese and American College Students. Music & Medicine, 7(1), 17-22.

      Wheeler, B. L. (2014). The Importance of Research in Educating About Music Therapy. Voices: A World Forum of Music Therapy. https://voices.no/index.php/voices/article/view/746

      Wheeler, B. L., & Williams, C. (2012). Students’ Thoughts and Feelings about Music Therapy Practicum Supervision. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 21(2), 111–132.

      Sokhadze, G., Wheeler, B., & Sokhadze, E. (2012). Physiological Measures and Subjective Rating of Emotions Induced by Music [abstract]. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 37, 304.

      Wheeler, B. L., Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., Behrens, G. A., & Quinn, C. (2011). Musically-Induced Emotions: Subjective Measures of Arousal and Valence. Music & Medicine, 3(4), 224-233.

      Bradt, J., Magee, W. L., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. L., & McGilloway, E. Music Therapy for Adults with Acquired Brain Injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD006787.

      Wheeler, B. L., & Baker, F. (2010). Influences of Music Therapists’ Worldviews on Work in Different Countries. Arts in Psychotherapy, 37, 215-227. (translated into Polish and reprinted as: Wheeler, B., & Baker, F. (2014). Wpływy światopoglądów muzykoterapeutów  na praktykę kliniczną w różnych krajach. Polskie Pismo Muzykoterapeutyczne, 1, 25-64.)

      Else, B. A., & Wheeler, B. L. (2010). Music Therapy Practice: Relative Perspectives in Evidence-Based Reviews. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 19, 29-50.

      Wheeler, B. L., Weissbecker, I., Elwafi, P. R., & Salvador, C. (2010). The Susan G. Komen Music Therapy Initiative: Music Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer. International Journal of Integrative Oncology, 3(1), 7-17.

      Miller, T., Swank, A., Manire, J., Robertson, R., & Wheeler, B. (2010). Effect of Music and Dialog on Perception of Exertion, Enjoyment, and Metabolic Responses during Exercise. International Journal of Fitness, 6(2), 45-52.

      Wheeler, B. L., & Stultz, S. (2008). Using Typical Infant Development to Inform Music Therapy with Children with Disabilities. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35, 585-591.

      Wheeler, B. L. (2008). Music Therapy Research: Contributions from Canada. Canadian Journal of Music Therapy, 13(2), 10-36. (invited article, refereed)

      Wheeler, B. L. (2006). Music Therapy Research: Connecting Clinical Practice and Research. Musiktherapeutische Umschau, 27, 368-374. (invited article, refereed)

      Murphy, K. M., & Wheeler, B. L. (2005). Symposium on Experiential Learning in Music Therapy: Report of the Symposium Sponsored by the World Federation of Music Therapy Commission on Education, Training, and Accreditation. Music Therapy Perspectives, 23, 138-143.

      Wheeler, B. L., Shiflet, S. C., & Nayak, S. (2003). Effects of Number of Sessions and Group or Individual Music Therapy on the Mood and Behavior of People Who Have Had Strokes or Traumatic Brain Injuries. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 12, 139-151.

      Wheeler, B. L. (2003). First International Symposium on Music Therapy Training: A Retrospective Examination. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 12, 54-66.
      (reprinted 2000 in J. Th. Eschen (Ed.), Mentorenkurs Musiktherapie Herdecke Rückblick und Ausblick. Wiesbaden, Germany: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.)

      Wheeler, B. L. (2002). Experiences and Concerns of Students during Music Therapy Practica. Journal of Music Therapy, 39, 274-304. Reprinted in K. H. Phillips (2008), Exploring Research in Music Education and Music Therapy. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Wheeler, B. L., & Grocke, D. E. (2001). Report of the World Federation of Music Therapy Commission on Education, Training, and Accreditation Symposium. Music Therapy Perspectives, 19, 63-67.

      Wheeler, B. L. (2000). Music Therapy Practicum Practices: A Survey of Music Therapy Educators. Journal of Music Therapy, 37, 286-311.

      Nayak, S., Wheeler, B. L., Shiflett, S. C., & Agostinelli, S. (2000). The Effect of Music Therapy on Mood and Social Interaction among Individuals with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke. Rehabilitation Psychology, 45, 274-283.

      Wheeler, B. L. (1999). Experiencing Pleasure in Working with Severely Disabled Children. Journal of Music Therapy, 36, 56-80. (reprinted 2000 with an introduction, Reflections on ‘Experiencing Pleasure in Working with Severely Disabled Children,’ in J. Z. Robarts (Ed.), Music Therapy Research: Growing Perspectives in Theory and Practice. London: British Society of Music Therapy.)

      Wheeler, B. L. (1988). An Analysis of Literature from Selected Music Therapy Journals. Music Therapy Perspectives, 5, 94-101.

      Wheeler, B. L. (1987). Levels of Therapy: The Classification of Music Therapy Goals. Music Therapy, 6(2), 39-49.

      Wheeler, B. L. (1987). The Use of Paraverbal Therapy in Treating an Abused Child. Arts in Psychotherapy, 14, 69-76.

      Wheeler, B. L., & Golden. S. (1987). NAMT and Its Mid-Atlantic Region: Changing Together. Music Therapy Perspectives, 4, 56-63.

      Wheeler, B. L., Biase, D. V., & Sullivan, A. P. (1986). Changes in Self-Concept During Therapeutic Community Treatment: A Comparison of Male and Female Drug Abusers. Journal of Drug Education, 16, 191-196.

      Maranto, C., & Wheeler, B. (1986). Teaching Ethics in Music Therapy. Music Therapy Perspectives, 3, 17-19.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (1985). Relationship of Personal Characteristics to Mood and Enjoyment after Hearing Live and Recorded Music. Psychology of Music, 13, 81-92.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (1983). A Psychotherapeutic Classification of Music Therapy Practices: A Continuum of Procedures. Music Therapy Perspectives, 1, 8-12. (Translated into Polish 2009, Psychoterapeutyczna klasyfikacja praktyk muzykoterapeutycznych – kontinuum procedur. Terapia przez sztuk?. www.arteterapia.pl)

       

      Wheeler, B. (1981). The Relationship between Music Therapy and Theories of Psychotherapy. Music Therapy, 1, 9-16.

       

      Books and Book Chapters

      Wheeler, B. L. (Ed.). (2015). Music Therapy Handbook. New York: Guilford Press.

      Wheeler, B. L. 2015). Music Therapy as a Profession. In B. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Handbook (pp. 5-16). New York: Guilford Press.

      Ridder, H. M., & Wheeler, B. L. (2015). Music Therapy for Older Adults. In B. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Handbook (pp. 367-378). New York: Guilford Press.

      Wheeler, B. L. (2014). Music in Psychosocial Training and Counseling (MPC). In M. H. Thaut & V. Hoemberg (Eds.), Handbook of Neurologic Music Therapy (pp. 331-360). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2013). Individuals with Severe and Multiple Disabilities. In M. Hintz (Ed.), Guidelines for Music Therapy Practice in Developmental Health (pp. 399-440). University Park, IL: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2013). Music Therapy Assessment. In R. Cruz & B. Feder, Feder's The Art and Science of Evaluation in the Arts Therapies (2nd ed.) (pp. 344-382). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2013). Badania w Muzykoterapii (Music Therapy Research). In K. Stachyra (Ed.), Podstawy muzykoterapii. Podrcznik (Music Therapy Basics Handbook). Lublin, Poland: UMCS University Publisher.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2013). Carol Robbins; Paraverbal Therapy. Entries in K. Kirkland (Ed.), Dictionary of Music Therapy. New York: Routledge.

       

      Wheeler B. L. Paul Nordoff (revision of previous entry). New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd Ed., Charles Hiroshi Garrett, Editor-in-Chief. New York: Oxford University Press; Oxford Music Online: Grove Music Online (2010-13) and a 6-volume set (2012)

       

      Wheeler, B. L. Clive Robbins. New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd Ed., Charles Hiroshi Garrett, Editor-in-Chief. New York: Oxford University Press; Oxford Music Online: Grove Music Online (2010-13) and a 6-volume set (2012)

       

      Thaut, M. H., & Wheeler, B. L. (2010). Music Therapy. In P. Juslin & J. Sloboda, Handbook of Music and Emotion (pp. 819-848). London: Oxford University Press.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2009). Research and Evaluation in Music Therapy. In S. Hallam, I. Cross, & M. Thaut (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology (pp. 515-525). London: Oxford University Press.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2008). Music Therapy. In F. T. L. Leong (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Counseling (pp. 305-308). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2006). Feminist Perspectives in Music Therapy Research. In S. Hadley (Ed.), Feminist Music Therapy: Empowering Women’s Voices (pp. 451-474). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Magee, W., & Wheeler, B. L. (2006). Music Therapy for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. In G. J. Murrey (Ed.), Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of Brain Injury and Neuro-behavioral Disorders: A Practical Guide (pp. 51-73). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.

       

      Schaefer, S., Murrey, M. A., Magee, W., & Wheeler, B. L. (2006). Melodic Intonation Therapy with Traumatic Brain-Injured Patients. In G. J. Murrey (Ed.), Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of Brain Injury and Neurobehavioral Disorders: A Practical Guide (pp. 75-105). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (Ed.). (2005). Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2005). Overview of Music Therapy Research. In B. L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Ed. (pp. 3-19). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L., & Kenny, C. (2005). Principles of Qualitative Research. In B. L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Ed. (pp. 59-71). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2005). Developing a Topic. In B. L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Ed. (pp. 94-104). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (2005). Designing Quantitative Research. In B. L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Ed. (pp. 112-128). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Hanser, S. B., & Wheeler, B. L. (2005). Experimental Research. In B. L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Ed. (pp. 261-271). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L., Shultis, C. L., & Polen, D. W. (2005). Clinical Training Guide for the Student Music Therapist. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

      Wheeler, B. L. (1999). Lisa: The Experience of a Child with Multiple Disabilities. In J. Hibbin (Ed.), Music Therapy: From a Client’s Perspective (pp. 237-246). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

       

       

      PRESENTATIONS

      International

      The Varied Possibilities of Music Therapy as a Support. Conference: Art As a Support. Art Therapy Center and Maria Curie- Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland. November 2014.

      Music Therapy in Hospitals. Music Therapy Seminar. Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music, Katowice, Poland. November 2014.

      Overview of Music Therapy Research. University of the Arts, Berlin, Germany. November 2014.

      Music Therapy Research: Trends and Patterns. World Congress of Music Therapy, Krems, Austria. July 2014.

       

      Music Therapy in Adult and Pediatric Oncology. International Conference, Music, Therapy, Education: Practice, Science, Art. Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music, Katowice, Poland. July 2014.

       

      Music Therapy in Chronic Disease and Cancer Treatment and Its Outcomes for Coping Strategies and Quality of Life. Würzburg University Child Hospital, Würzburg, Germany. December 2013.

       

      Overview of Music Therapy Research; Music Therapy Assessment – Conference Presentations; Music Therapy for Children with Special Needs; Music therapy for Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Music Therapy for Adults with Emotional Disorders; Music Therapy for Schizophrenia; Music Therapy in Rehabilitation – Workshops; 11th Academic Conference of the Chinese Music Therapy Association, Weifang, China. October 2013.

       

      Overview of Music Therapy Research; Experiencing Pleasure When Working with Children with Severe Disabilities. Central Conservatory of Music, Beijing, China. October 2013.

       

      Overview of Music Therapy Research; Experiencing Pleasure When Working with Children with Severe Disabilities. 2nd international symposium on Creative Arts Therapy, College of Medical Science, Jeonju University, Korea. October 2013.

       

      Overview of Music Therapy: Children, Rehabilitation, Hospitals. College of Medical Science, Jeonju University, Korea. October 2013.

       

      A Comparison of Oncology Studies in Music Therapy and Music Medicine. European Music Therapy Conference, Oslo, Norway, August 2013.

       

      Prof. Tony Wigram: World Conferences, AMTA, Research Publications. Presentation at a Commemorative Seminar on the Academic Life of Professor Tony Wigram, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. November 2011.

       

      Music Therapy with Acquired Brain Injuries: Preliminary Recommendations from Cochrane Review. 13th World Congress of Music Therapy, Seoul, South Korea, July 2011. (Bradt, Magee, Dileo, Wheeler, McGilloway) (co-presenter, did not attend)

       

      Music Therapy in Oncology; Experiencing Pleasure When Working with Children with Severe Disabilities. Shanghai Conservatory of Music, Shanghai, China. June 2010

       

      Music Therapy: Introduction and Overview. Presentation to Music Teachers, Principals, and School Counselors in Jin Niu District, Chengdu, China. June 2010.

      Influences of Music Therapists’ Worldviews on Work in Different Countries. 8th European Music Therapy Congress, Cadiz, Spain, May 2010 (co-author; sole presenter)

       

      Music Therapy with Acquired Brain Injuries: Preliminary Recommendations from Cochrane Review. 8th European Music Therapy Congress, Cadiz, Spain, May 2010 (Wheeler & Magee); also presented in Rycerka, Poland, at workshop sponsored by Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music

       

      Music Therapy in Neurological Rehabilitation. Keynote Presentation. International Forum of Music Therapy on Crisis Intervention and APMTA Annual Conference, Chengdu, China. October 2009

       

      Vocal and Instrumental Music Therapy Techniques. Workshop. International Forum of Music Therapy on Crisis Intervention and APMTA Annual Conference, Chengdu, China. October 2009

       

      Music Therapy Research: Essential to Our Work. Queensland State Branch, Australian Music Therapy Association. Brisbane, Australia. July 2009

       

      Music Therapy Writing. Raukatauri Music Therapy Centre, Auckland, NZ. July 2009

       

      Seminar/Discussion on Action Research Project on Collaborative Goal and Objective Setting. Raukatauri Music Therapy Centre, Auckland, NZ. July 2009

       

      Developing a Music Therapy Program for Patients with Breast Cancer in an Outpatient Setting, Inaugural Meeting, International Association for Music & Medicine. Limerick, Ireland. June 2009

       

      Music and Emotion: Connecting Theory, Research, and Practice. Canadian Association for Music Therapy Conference, Ottawa, CA. May 2009

       

      International Presentations Given as a Part of Teaching

      Music Therapy Workshops. Hospital Music Therapy (Pediatrics; Rehabilitation; General Medical; Hospice and Palliative Care; Establishing a Program); Music Therapy Assessment; Music Therapy in Adult Psychiatry (2 days). Music Therapy Training Program, Zagreb, Croatia. June 2014.

       

      Qualitative Research in Music Therapy, Hospice and Palliative Care. Master of Arts in Developmental Music Therapy and Music Therapy with Dementia Patients. University of Applied Sciences of Würzburg and Schweinfurt. Würzburg, Germany. December 2013.

       

      Music Therapy in Oncology. University of Applied Sciences of Würzburg and Schweinfurt, Germany. December 2013.

       

      Academic Writing and Writing Up Your Thesis. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. November 2011.

       

      Principles and Practices of Music Therapy. 60 hours for Bachelor’s level students. 2010, 2011. 2013. Psychology of Music. 15 hours for Master’s students, 2011.

       

      Special Topics in Music Therapy. 15 hours for Master’s students, 2013. Karol Szymanowski Academy of Music, Katowice, Poland.

       

      Planning for Music Therapy, Methods of Music Therapy, Music Therapy Supervision, Hospice and Palliative Care. Master of Arts in Developmental Music Therapy and Music Therapy with Dementia Patients. University of Applied Sciences of Würzburg and Schweinfurt. Würzburg, Germany. October 2011.

       

      Music Therapy in Oncology; Medical Music Therapy; Music Therapy in Palliative Care and Hospice; Music Therapy with Acquired Brain Injuries: Preliminary Recommendations from Cochrane Review. Central Conservatory of Music, Beijing, China. June 2010

       

      Special Research Methods. University of Applied Sciences of Würzburg and Schweinfurt, Germany. May 2010; June 2009 (2009 presentation via internet)

       

      Working with Levels in Music Therapy. University of Melbourne, Australia. March 2009.

       

      Music Therapy Research; Clinical Practice in Music Therapy. Lectures at National University, Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine. May 2006.

       

      Developing the Research Method from the Question; Navigating the Research Terrain – Research in the Real World. Lectures at Aalborg University Music Therapy PhD program, May 2006.

       

      Music Therapy in Psychiatry; Music Therapy in the United States; Music Therapy Research: Matching the Method to the Question. Lectures to Music Therapy students. Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. March 2006.

       

       

      United States

      Music Therapy and Stroke:  A Systematic Review (Ard & Wheeler); Effects of Music Therapy on the Prosocial Behaviors of Adults with Disabilities (Baumgarten & Wheeler); Macrobiotics and Humanistic Music Psychotherapy (Gannon & Wheeler). Poster Session, AMTA Conference, Louisville, KY. November 2014.

      Memorial Wall. Mid-Atlantic Conference of AMTA, Scranton, PA. April 2012. Conceived idea and coordinated posters honoring residents of Mid-Atlantic Region who are no longer alive; part of 50th Anniversary Celebration of Region.

       

      The Current Status of Assessment Development in Music Therapy. (Lipe, York, King, Jeong, Lesiuk, Wheeler). AMTA Conference, St. Charles, IL, October 2012

      Survey of Reasons for Music Listening and Uses of Music in Japanese and American College Students. (Otera, Wada, Wheeler). (poster presentation). AMTA Conference, St. Charles, IL, October 2012

       

      Wheeler, B. L. Students’ Thoughts and Feelings about Music Therapy Practicum Supervision. AMTA Conference, Atlanta, GA, November 2011; SER-AMTA Conference, Spartanburg, SC. April 2011.

       

      Music Therapy for Adults with Acquired Brain Injury: Results of a Cochrane Systematic Review. (Bradt, Magee, Dileo, Wheeler, McGilloway). (poster presentation). In Abstracts for Poster Session, Music, Science & Medicine: Frontiers in Biomedical Research & Clinical Applications Friday, March 25, 2011 (p.13). New York: NYAS.

       

      Physiological and Affective Effects of Contrasting Music Styles in Stress Management (Caudill & Wheeler); The Effects of Music, Visual Stimuli, and Paired Music-Visual Stimuli on Heart Rate When Viewing a Film (Fowler & Wheeler); Performance Anxiety: Effects of Performing with Music versus Performing Music from Memory (Powell & Wheeler). Poster sessions, Kentucky Music Educators In-Service Meeting, Louisville, KY. February 2011.

       

      How Music Therapists’ Worldviews Influence Their Work in Different Countries. Qualitative Report 2nd Annual Conference, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. January 2011.

       

      Influences of Music Therapists’ Worldviews on Work in Different Countries. AMTA Conference, Cleveland, OH. November 2010 (Wheeler & Baker; sole presenter)

      Effect of Music Technology on College Student’s Retention During Repeated Memorization Tasks (Cross & Wheeler); Live and Recorded Music: Differences in Preference among College Musicians (Grandstaff & Wheeler); Melody and Memory: Utilizing Familiar Melodies to Facilitate Recall of Unconnected Text (Hinote & Wheeler); Using Music to Promote Positive Mood (Northrup & Wheeler). Poster sessions, AMTA Conference, Cleveland, OH. November 2010.

       

      Voices and the Open Access Revolution: Culture, Ethics, Authenticity. AMTA Conference, Cleveland, OH. November 2010 (panel member)

       

      Acquired Brain Injuries and Music Therapy: Recommendations from Cochrane Review. Great Lakes AMTA Conference, Indianapolis, IN. March 2010; Southeastern Region AMTA Conference, Orlando, FL. March 2010 (Wheeler & Magee; sole presenter)

       

      International Perspectives of Music Therapy. Association for Indiana Music Therapists, Southern Winter meeting. February 2010. Evansville, IN

      State of the Association. Presidential Address. AMTA National Conference, San Diego. November 2009 (presenter; one of authors/preparers)